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Cross-cultural counseling/multicultural counseling/intercultural counseling
counseling a client from a different social and/or cultural background
ACA division: The Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development
Customs shared by a group that distinguish it from other groups
and values shared by a ground that are learned from others in the group.
-attitudes, beliefs, art, and language which characterize members of a group

Macroculture or majority culture refers to the dominant culture or the culture that is accepted by the majority of the citizens in a given society
Cultural relativity/cultural relativism
connotes that a behavior cannot be assessed as good or bad except within the context of a given culture. The behavior must be evaluted relative to the culture
culture epoch theory
suggests that all cultures--like children--pass through the same stages of development in terms of evolving and maturing
the identification of individual's via distinct physical or bodily characteristics such as skin color. Assumption is that Race is based on genetic origins
National Culture
describe cultural patterns common to a given country
ideal culture
the way individuals are suppose to behave
real culture
encompasses all behaviors within the culture, even those illict or frowned upon
when a group opposes the value of a culture
Emilie Durkheim
one of the founders of modern sociology. His principles were first outlined in 1895 in Rules of Sociological Method. He is also well known for his research into suicide
William Mcdougall
the father of hormic psychology a Darwinian viewpoint which suggests that individuals in or out of groups are driven by innate, inherited tendencies. In 1908 he wrote Introduction to Social Psychology and his position of selective breeding is now classified as "scientific racism"
____ would say that regardless of culture, humans have an instinct to fight
Frued and Lorenz
-Freud believed that man was driven by instincts of sex and aggression
-Lorenz is another believer of innate aggression theory

_______ believe that aggression is learned
Social Learning Theorists
-Social Learning Theory contradicts the innate/instincts aggression theory by emphasizing the environment rather than genetics or inborn tendencies
Daniel Levinson
Proposed a theory with life transitions
-wrote season's of a man's life and season's of a women's life
-Said men's midlife crisis occurs between 40-45 and women's five years earlier

Early Adult transition (17-22), Age 30 transition (28-33), Midlife transition (40-45), Age 50 transition

Three factors which enhance interpersonal attraction
close proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefs
the study of proximity, relates to personal space, interpersonal space, and terrioriality
-Propinquity: the tendencsy for people who are in close proximity to be attracted to each other
implies that behavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occurs
When a counselor speaks of what he or she believes must transpire from a psychotherapeutic standpoint,he or she is technically referring to the _____
-Prognosis refers to the probability that one can recover from a condition
John Dollard and Neal Miller
associated with the frustration-aggression theory
-occurs when an individual is blocked so that he or she cannot reach an intended goal
-frustration leads to aggression

Albert Ellis on frustration agression
Father of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
-does not agree with the frustration aggression theory, Ellis believes aggression transpires due to the client's irrational thought process rather than a automatic response pattern
Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory
Concept of balance theory suggests that people strive for consistency/balance in terms of their belief system. Individuals attempt to reduce or eliminate inconsistent compatible actions and beliefs
-incompatibility in thoughts is known as cognitive dissonance
beliefs regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior. develip as a given group decides what is good or bad for the welfare of the people. People are punished for violating mores
describe correct,normal or habitual behavior. Folkways generally results in embarassment
Frank parsons
The father of vocational guidance, who wrote Choosing a Vocation was the first pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues. Frank parsons and his associates are considered the first social reformers concerned with guidance in the U.S.
Ecological Culture
cultural norms are often the result of practical and survival behaviors related to the climate or the resources in a given physical or geological enviroment
Freud's Eros and Thanatos
Eros is the greek god of love
Thanatos is the greek god of death
Id, ego, and superego
The id is the pleasure principle
The ego is the reality principle
The superego is the ego ideal

If you think the mind as a seesaw, then the fulcrum or balance apparatus would be the ego

A therapist who says to a patient, "say whatever comes to mind" is practicing___
free association
The superego contains____
The ego ideal. The superego strives for perfection rather than pleasure like the id.
-superego is more concerned with the ideal than what is real
-superego is composed of values, morals, and ideals of the parents, caretakers, and society

Freud, Jung, and Adler could all be associated with the ____ movement
Most scholars would assert that Freud's 1900 work entitled __________ was his most influential work
The Interpretation of Dreams
-Dreams have manifest and latent content
-Dreams are the road to knowledge of the unconscious mind
-surfacing meaning of a dream is manifest contest
-Hidden meaning of a dream is latent content
-discovering the meaning the client can become aware of impulses, desires, and conflicts

When a client projects feelings towards the therapist that he or she originally has toward a significant other
Psychoanalytic counselors believe that a client who is resistant will be reluctant to bring unconscious ideas into the conscious mind. Nonanalytic counselors use the word to describe clients who are fighting the helping process in some manner
Little Albert
Little Albert is a famous case associated with the work of John B. Watson who pioneered American Behaviorism
-In 1920 him and Rayner conditioned an 11 year old boy named Albert to be afraid of furry objects, not originally afraid of rats, but conditioned the child to be afraid of rats by striking a steel bar which created a loud noise when the child was near the rat
-demonstrates the behavioristic concept that fears are learned rather than the analytic concept that they result from an unconscious process

Annie ).
In the 1880s Annie was considered the first psychoanalytic patient. Patient of Breuer. She suffered from symptoms termed hysteria and hypnosis would remember painful events that she could not remember when awake. Talking about these traumatic events brought catharsis
Little Hans
In Freud's 1909 paper an analysis of a phobia in a five year old boy in which the child's fear of going into the streets and perhaps even having a horse bite him were explained using psychoanalytic explanations of behavior
Daniel Schreber
1903 wrote Memoirs of a Mental Patient, In 1911 Freud published Psychoanalytical Notes Upon an Autobiographical Account of a case of Paranoia.
-Schreber's delusion was that he would be transformed into a woman,become god's mate, and produce a healthier race. Freud felt that Schreber was dealing with unconscious issues of homosexuality
talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feelings is a curative process
-hardcore analysts prefer abreaction
-some use catharsis to connote mild purging and abreaction when a repressed emotional outburst occurs

Accurate empathy and reflection of emotional content
Emphasized very heavily in nondirective client-centered counseling
-accurate empathy means that a counselor can truly understand what a client is feeling or experiencing
-reflection of emotional content when a counselor restates verbalizations in such a manner that a client becomes aware of their emotions

Topographical theory
(The iceberg) the unconscious, preconscious, conscious
Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS)
is a concept used in forming a hierarchy to perform Wolpe's systematic desensitization: a behavior therapy technique for curing phobic reactions, anxiety, and avoidance responses to innocuous situations
-created via the process of introspection by rating the anxiety associated with the situation
Ego defense mechanisms
Ego controls tension and relieves anxiety using these
-unconscious strategies which distort reality and are based on self deception to protect our image
-rationalization, compensation, repression, projection, reaction formation, identification, introjection, denial, and displacement
-Freudians feel that repression is the biggest ego defense response

Jung said men operate on ____ and women operate on_____
Men operate on logos (logic)
and women operate on Eros (Intuition)
Baseline measures
behaviorist term
-baseline indicates that a behavior is manifested prior or in the absence of treatment
Introversion and Extroversion
Associated with Jung
-Introversion means turning in of the libido
-Extroversion find satisfaction and pleasure in other people

The personality types of Myers-Briggs Type Indicate (MBTI) are associated with the work of
-Four bipolar scales

One of Adler's students ______ was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice
Rudolph Dreikurs
-also introduced Adlerian principles into the treatment of children in school settings
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective test in which the client is shown a series of pictures and ask to tell a story. The TAT was introduced in Henry Murray's 1938 work Explorations in Personality
Murray called the study of personality: personology
Andrew Salter
wrote The Case Against Psychoanalysis
Ground breaking work in behavior therapy which lead to the formation of assertiveness training
Social connectedness
Adler emphasized that people wish to belong
Adler was one of the first therapists who relied on ____
Using this strategy a client who was afraid to give a presentation in front of class for fear he might shake and embarrass himself would be instructed to exaggerate the behavior
-Paradoxical strategies seem to defy logic as the client is instructed to intensify or purposely engage in the maladaptive behavior.

Jung felt that socetiy cause men to deny their feminine side____
and women to deny their masculine side____
Collective Unconscious
Jung spoke of this, it is common to all men and women
-The material is passed from generation to generation and is known as archetypes
-Archetype is a primal universal symbol which means the same thing to all men and women

Common archetypes
-The persona: the mask or role we present to others to hide our true self
-animus, anima self
-shadow: the dark side of the personality, though it is not always negative, the shadow represents the unconscious opposite of the individuals conscious expression

used to illuminate discrepancies between the client's and the helper's conceptualization of the situation
Symptom Substitution
If you merely deal with the symptom another symptom will manifest itself since the real problem is in the unconscious mind
Eclectic counselor
attempts to choose the best theoretical approach based on the client's attributes, resources, and situation
-Frederick C. Thorne, Thorne felt that true eclecticism is more than a hodgepodge of facts, it needs to be rigidly scientific
emphasized lifestyle, birth order, and family constellation.
Adlerians believe that our lifestyle is a predictable self-fulfilling prophecy based on our psychological feelings about ourselves
-Adler stresses the importance of birth order in family constellations: first borns go to great lengths to please their parents, a middle child will feel like they are treated unfairly, and a youngest child can be pampered or spoiled
-Adler believes that behavior must be studied in a social context never in isolation

Existentialism and logotherapy
Existentialism (a philosophy) is compared to logotherapy (a brand of psychotherapy)
Logotherapy grew out of the philosophy of existentialism
Arnold Lazarus and his multimodal approach
Worked closely with John Wolpe
Seven key modalities or areas of client functioning
B: behavior=acts,habits, reactions
A: affective responses such as emotions, feelings, and mood
S: sensations including hearing, touch, sight, smell, and taste
I: images/ the way we perceive ourselves including memories and dreams
C: cognitions such as our thoughts, insights, and philosophy on life
D: drugs that would include alcohol, legal, illegal, and prescription drugs

Pavlovian conditioning is ___ while Skinner's conditioning _____
Skinner's operant conditioning is also referred to as
instrumental learning
Classical conditioning relates to the work of
Ivan Pavlov

-An association that naturally exists such as animals salivating when food is presented is called unconditioned
Conditioned: learned
Unconditioned: unlearned
Acquisition period refers to the time it takes to learn or acquire a given behavior

All reinforcers tend to ____ the probability that a behavior will occur
Negative reinforcement
requires the withdraw of an aversive stimulus to increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur. Negative reinforcement is not used as often as positive reinforcement and is not the same as punishment
The most effect time interval (temporal relation) between the CS and the US is
-if the interval exceeds a half of second, more trials are needed for effective conditioning
CS comes before US

Erik Erikson is a ego psychologist, ego psychologists believe in___
Man's powers of reasoning to control behaviors
Freud's life stages are
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Erik Erikson's stages are
psychosocial and focus on social relationships
Freud emphasized the____ while Erikson stressed the importance of the_____
The only psychoanalyst who created a developmental theory which encompasses the entire life
Erik Erikson
The statement the ego is dependent on the id would most likely reflect the work of
The ego is pressured to succumb to the pleasure regardless of the consequences
Jay Haley
Known for his work in strategic and problem solving therapy, often utilizing the technique of paradox
Arnold Lazarus
pioneer in the behavior therapy movement
especially in regards to the use of systematic desensitization techniques which help clients cope with phobias. Today his name is associated with the multimodal development
William Perry
known for his ideas related to adult cognitive development. Perry stresses a concept known as dualistic thinking common to teens in which things are conceptualized as good or bad or right and wrong. Dualism has also been referred to as black and white thinking with no ambiguity
Ed Neukrug
Shares the fact that students think that the professor has the answer. As they enter adulthood they move into relativistic thinking, the individual now has the ability to perceive that not everything is right or wrong but an answer can exist relative to a specific situation
Robert Keegan
figure in adult cognitive development
theory is the constructive model of development, meaning that individuals construct reality throughout our lifespan
Jean Piaget's four stages
sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations
A tall pitcher of water is emptied into a small squatty pitcher. A child indicates that she feels the small pitcher has less water. The child has not yet mastered
In Piaget's theory conservation refers to the notion that a substances mass, volume, and weight remain the same even if it changes shape.
Both Conservation and the ability to Count mentally occur in the concrete operational stage (Counting, Conservation, Concrete)

Lev Vygotsky
disagreed with Paiget's notion that developmental stages take place naturally. Vygotsky insisted that stages unfolded due to educational intervention.
Invented the zone of proximal development and it describes the difference between a child's performance without a teacher vs what he or she is capable of with a instructor
According to Piaget a child masters reversibility in the concrete operational stage. This ___
notion suggests that one can undo an action, hence a object can return to its original shape
Piaget was not implying that children are self-centered. Instead it conveys the fact that a child cannot view the world from a vantage point of someone else
Lawrence Kohlberg suggested ___ levels of morality
Three preconventional, conventional, and post conventional or self accepted principles level
each level can be broken down further into two stages
The Heinz story
a method used by kohlberg to asses the level and stage of moral development in a individual
The term identity crisis comes from the work of
RS in counseling means
Religious and spiritual. Addressing RS issues in counseling has increased. Counselors who are attempting to integrate the practice of positive psychology into their work examine RS factors
____ is Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development
Trust vs. mistrust
Kohlberg's first or preconventional level
individual's moral behavior is governed by consequences
- a m&M or a slap on the behind is more important that societal expectations
-reward and punishment greatly influence behavior

Kohlberg's second level of morality/ conventional morality
-level is characterized by a desire to live up to society's expectations and a desire to conform
-meet the standards of family, society, and the nation
Kohlberg's level 3 which is postconventional or self accepted principles
highest level of morality, some people never reach this level
-concerned with universal principles of justice and equality of human rights
-ghandi, mlk jr

___ occurs in stage 2 of preconventional level
if i'm nice to others than others will be nice to me and I will get what I want
John Bowlby
Bonding and Attachment
-saw bonding and attachment as having survival value also known as adaptive significance in order to have a normal life a child must bond with an adult before the age of 3
-if bond is severed at a early age it is known as "object loss" this is breeding ground for psychopathology

Arnold Gesell
pioneer in terms of using a one way mirror for observing children. Gesell felt that development is primarily determined via genetics/hereditary. A child must be ready before he or she accept a certain level of education
Harry Harlow
researcher who is well known for his work with maternal deprivation and isolation in rhesus monkey
-believed that attachment is an innate tendency and not one which is learned. Monkeys in isolation developed autistic abnormal behavior. When monkeys were placed in cages with normally reared monkeys some remission of the dysfunctional behavior was noted
Renee Spitz
noted that children that experience maternal deprivation between 6 and 8 months cried more, experienced more difficulty sleeping, and more health related concerns. Spitz called this "anaclitic depression" these infants experience great difficulty forming close relationships
In Harry Harlow's experiements with baby monkeys the baby monkeys were more likely to chose the _____ over the _____
terry cloth surrogate over the wire surrogate

Harlow concluded that contact comfort is important to the development of infant's attachment

In Freudian theory, attachment is a major factor which evolves primarily during the ___ stage
Stanley Coopersmith
found that child rearing methods seem to have a tremendous impact on self esteem. The children with high self esteem were provided with a clear understanding of what was morally right and wrong. Children with high self esteem had more rules then children with low self esteem. Children with high self esteem were punished with the emphasis on the behavior being bad not the child
Development is a continuous process that begins at____
Development is _______
-head to foot
assume the normal person has 23 chromosomes, characteristics are transmitted through chromosomes, genes composed of DNA have a genetic code

Heritability- the portion of a trait that can be explained via genetic factors

Piaget's final stage
Formal Operations
abstract thinking emerges and problems can be solved using deduction
Kohlberg lists _____ stages of moral development which fall into ___ levels
6 stages, 3 levels
Level 1 Preconventional
Stage 1: Punishment/obedience
Stage 2: Native Hedonism
Level 2 Conventional
Stage 3:(good boy/good girl orientation)
Stage 4: Authority, Law, and Order orientation
Level 3: postconventional
Stage 5: Democratically Accepted Law or Social Contract
Stage 6: Principles of self conscience and universal ethics

Freud's oedipus complex falls into what stage?
A ______ view of development would be behavioristic
A child who focuses exclusively on a clown's red nose but ignores his or her other features would be illustrating Piaget's concept of_____
Piaget felt that teachers should lecture less, as children in _____ learn best via their own actions and experimentations
Concrete Operations
Piaget's_______ includes the acquisition of symbolic schema
preoperational stage
age 2-7
__________ agreed that each developmental stage needed to be resolved before a individual could move on to the next stage
Freud and Erikson
______ proposed developmental tasks for infancy, early childhood, middle school, adolescence, early adulthood, middle age, later maturity
R.J. Having-Hurst
Jane Loevinger focused on ______ via seven stages and two transition, the highest level being integrated
ego development
The sequence of object loss which goes form protest to despair to detachment best describes the work of ____
Primal Scene
Psychoanalytic concept that suggests that young child witness his parents having sexual intercourse or is seduced by a parent
Wishful Fulfillment
Freud's notion that dreams and slip of the tongue are actually wishful fulfillment
Ego identity
Associated with Erik Erikson's fifth stage identity vs. role confusion
when a adolescent is able to integrate all of their previous roles into a single self concept
Erikson's middle stage is known as______
Generativity vs stagnation
Generativity is the ability to do creative work or raise a family the opposite of stagnation
The ability to produce a career, family, and leisure time

Which theorist was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
Harry Harlow
Joseph Wolpe
pioneered the technique of systematic desensitization a behavioral technique
When development comes to a halt counselors say the client suffers from _____
Which theorist would argue that aggression is a inborn tendency
Konrad Lorenz
said aggressiveness is a part of our evolution and necessary for survival
______ has been called the Father of Vocational Guidance and in the 1900s set up centers to help people in search of work
Frank Parsons
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist
famous for hierarchy of needs which postulates lower order physiological and safety needs and higher order needs such as self actualization
Piaget referred to the act of taking in new information as ____ this results in _____
Assimilation, Accommodation
The balance between assimilation and accommodation is called equilibration
maturational theories of developmental
utilizes the plant growth analogy
the mind is being driven by instincts while the environment provides nourishment thus placing limits on development
Robert Keegan's holding environment
making meaning in the face of crisis and find a new direction
Keegan's six stages of life span development
incorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal, institutional, and interindividual
Freudian Theory a client that has problems with alcoholism and excessive smoking would be considered _____
a oral character
The term group therapy
coined in 1932 by Jacob Moreno, the father of psychodram
Joseph Pratt
a physician
formed the first therapy/counseling group from 1905 to 1923, the group dealt with issues of tuberculosis
In the 1940s two organizations for group therapy were created
The American Society for Group Psychotherapy and psychodrama


The american group psychotherapy association

Which Theorist's work has been classified as a preface to the group movement
Adler was engaging in group treatment during the early 1920s at his child guidance facilities he said man's problems and conflicts are recognized in their social nature
Gerald Caplan
Three classifications for groups:
primary, secondary, and tertiary
Primary group stresses a healthy lifestyle or coping strategy
Secondary group a problem or disturbance is present but is not usually severe and works to reduce the severity of a problem and prevent it
Tertiary group usually deals more with individual difficulties that are more serious and long standing

Group norms
govern acceptable behavior and group riles
Group norms are explicit and implicit
Group Therapy flourished in the United States due to____
a shortage of individual therapists during World War 2

Group Content vs group process
group content refers to material discussed in a group setting and group process refers to the manner in which discussions and transactions occur
George Gazda typology of groups
guidance, counseling and psychotherapy
-guidance groups do not deal with severe pathology, they are preventative replaced by psychoeducational groups
-group therapy is more severe common for inpatient
-counseling group focus primarily on conscious concerns

T groups
often stress ways employees can express themselves in a effective manner. T stands for training. Focus on human relations processes between personnel in a business setting
Self help group/support group
weight watchers is a self help group and so is AA.
- a self help group is composed of a group of people who are all attempting to cope with a given issue
-the distinction is that a support group is conducted by a organization (AA or weight watchers) and might charge fees, while a self-help group would not have either or both of those features

Closed vs open groups
closed groups allow no new members after the group begins
-closed group promotes choesiveness
-number of people in a open group is generally more stable than closed

Groups and universality
groups promote the concept of universality which suggests that we are not the only ones in the world with a given problem
when did the application of human growth and development theories to the practice of counseling become popular
the 1980s
is ongoing, systematic, orderly, sequential, and is said to build upon itself. The term continual implies that development occurs throughout the lifespan
What are Erik Erikson's Eight psychosocial stages
1. Trust vs mistrust (birth to1 1/2 years)
2. autonomy vs shame and doubt (1 1/2 to 3 years)
3.initiative vs guilt (3 to 6 years)
4. industry vs inferiority (6 to 11 years)
5. identity vs role confusion (12 to 18 years)
6. intimacy vs isolation (18-35 yrs)
7. generativity vs stagnation ( 35 to 60)
8. integrity vs despair (65 and beyond)

patterns of thought or behavior
occurs qualitatively when the individual fits information into existing ideas (also known as assimilation) and modifies cognitive schemata to incorporate new information (also called accommodation)
____ and ____ are said to be complementary processes. The ages in the Piagetian stages can vary the order is static
assimilation and accommodation
____ occurs in the sensorimotor stage (an object that the child can't see still exists)
object permanence
____ is the act of focusing on one aspect of something. It is a keep factor in the preoperational stage
____ takes place in the concrete operations stage. The child knows that volume and quantity do not change, just because the appearance of a object does.
What stage does abstract scientific thinking take place in
formal operations
Keegan's constructive development model
Keegan's model emphasizes the impact of interpersonal interaction and our perception of reality
Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development for women
Gilligan's 1982 book In a different voice illuminated the fact that Kohlberg's research was conducted on males. Women have a sense of caring and compassion
Daniel Levinson Four Major Eras/Transitions theory
The season's of a man's life Levinson depicted the changes in men's lives throughout the lifespan. The four key areas included: childhood and adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, later adulthod
the drive to live and the sexual instinct that is present even at birth. It is said to be sublimated in the latency stage as the individual has little interest in sex. This ends when puberty begins
the return to an earlier stage caused by stress
implies the person is unable to move to the next stage
Why is Freud criticized
for focusing too much on sex and not including the entire life span in his theory
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow interviewed self-actualized people. Lower-order physiological and safety needs must be fulfilled before self-actualization can occur
WIlliam Perry's three stage theory of intellectual and ethical development in adults/college students
Dualism in which students view the truth as right or wrong
Relativism is the notion that the perfect answer may not exist. Commitment to relativism in this final stage the individual is willing to change his or her opinion based on novel facts and new points of view
James W. Fowler's prestage plus six stage theory of faith and spiritual development
stage 0 undifferentiated faith /primal (infancy to 4 years)
Stage 1 intuitive projective faith 2 to 7 years
mythic-literal faith (childhood and beyond) synthetic conventional faith adolescence and beyond, individuative-reflective faith young adulthood and beyond, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith

-according to fowler faith is not identical with one's belief in religion "faith can be religious faith, but it can also be centered on career, a country, a institution, a family, money. Faith grows and changes throughout life span

Culture is dynamic
each culture is changing or revolving at its own rate
Universal culture
implies that we are all genetically and biologically similar "biological sameness"
regional culture
gives us culture for a certain region
learning the behaviors and expectations of a culture
occurs when one race views itself as superior to others. A given race has a set of genetically transmitted characteristics
one group sees itself as the standard by which other ethnic groups are measured
Emic vs etic
In the emic approach the counselor helps the client understand his or her culture. In the etic approach the counselor focuses on the similarities in people. treating people as being the same
The autoplastic--alloplastic dilemma
Autoplastic implies that the counselor helps the client to change to cope with his or her environment. Alloplastic occurs when the counselor has the client try to change the environment
implies that the client's tone of voice, loudness, vocal inflections, and speed of delivery, silence, and hesitation must be taken into consideration. It is part of the study of nonverbal communication and is usually considered more accurate than verbal communication
Low context communication
implies that there will be a long verbal explanation and high context communication relies on nonverbals that are readily understood by others in the culture
the notion that psychologically healthy people possess both masculine and feminine characteristics
Means test
determines whether a client is eligible for a social program or benefit such as temporary assistance for needy families
Social comparison theory
popularized by Leon Festinger, simply postulates that we evaluate our behaviors and accomplishments by comparing ourselves to others
Anglo-conformity theory
asserts that people from other cultures would do well to forget about their heritage and try to become like those in the dominant macroculture
The five stage atkinson, morten, and sue racial/cultural identity development model (R/CID) aka the minority identity model
1. conformity-- lean toward dominant culture and prefer a counselor from dominant culture
2. dissonance--question and confusion prefer a minority counselor
3. resistance and immersion -- reject the dominant culture while accepting one's own culture
4. introspection-mixed feelings related to previous stage
5. synergetic articulation and awareness --prefer a counselor with a similar attitude or worldview over a counselor who is merely the same race

Behavior modification is based on _____ while behavior therapy is based on_____
Skinner, Pavlov
Joseph's Wolpe" systematic desensitization
can be conducted individually or in a group to curb fears and abate anxiety. His technique of counterconditioning is based on Pavlov and relies on relaxation and imagining feared stimuli
Standardized Tests
have uniform procedures for scoring and administration. In addition, these instruments have validity and reliability and norm data which has been investigated and analyzed
Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests In Print
provide counselors with information on thousands of test. 2,500 tests have been analyzed by Buros
Raw score
a score that has not be altered
Raw scores are converted to ____ so that scores can relate to the____
standard scores, normal bell curve
The _____ is the highest score minus the lowest score (some exams add one to the answer
Percentile rank
tells the counselor the percent of scores equal to or below the score you are ranking. A client who scored in the 75th percentile scored equal or better than 75% of people who took the exam
Three measures of central tendency
mean (average)
median (middle score)

when a curve leans we say it is skewed, negatively skewed points to the left
positively skewed points to the right
Standard deviation
measure of variability or dispersion of scores
T scores
have a mean of 50 and the standard deviation is 10
Example what is the T score when the standard deviation is 2? 70
Empirical 68-95-99.7 normal curve rule
68% of scores fall between plus or minus 1 standard deviation from the mean, 95% of scores will fall plus or minus 2 standard deviations from the mean, and 99.7% of scores will fall plus or minus 3 SD from the mean
most important property of a psychological test
-does the test measure what it says it measures
is the test consistent
A reliable test is not always valid but a valid test ____
is always reliable
interrater reliability
the consistency of two or more raters.
If two counselors read the same report and come up with the same diagnosis then interrater reliability or agreement is high
A test or instrument that is only _____ on the majority culture is not appropriate for cultural minorities since it is misleading
Aptitude tests
predict potential
Achievement tests
gives your current accomplishments, what has been learned, or the level of performance achieved up to this time
Regression to the mean
if a client scores exceptionally low or high on a test then the score will go closer to the average next time
a association.
Correlations go from negative 1 to 0 to positive 1
Zero means no correlation
1 is perfect correlation

type 1 alpha error
when a researcher rejects a null hypothesis that is true
type 2 beta error
when a researcher accepts null when it should have been rejected

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