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Emotion and Memory4


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fMRI studies show what other regions besides the amygdala are used in emotional memory?
Ventromedial PFC
What 3 things is the ventromedial PFC used for in emotional memory?
increasing interest, emotional regulation, self-processing
The amygdala and __ are integrated heavily with each other
The window of a year when brain development of fear occurs:
Hyproresponsive period
In lab how are human's fear responses measured?
skin conductance response, increase in fear/arousal will sweat a bit more, not noticable but will picked up on SCR
pts with amygdala damage don't show __ __ but can tell what light/tone means is coming
conditioned response
Pts with MTL damage show __ __ __ but don't have __ __ to why
skin conductance response, declarative knowledge
Would amygdala pt like SM show the same advantage to being able to remember murderer in list of words?
Yes, has semantic knowledge, can tell you that murderer is a bad thing and will remember it more relative to others.
Won't have same SCR to the word murderer - no fear
Does SM show same eye movement pattern as others when watching bank robber's gun?
No, control's eyes seem to focus on the gun whereas SM doesn't have the emotional context to the gun so eyes to focus on it
controls show emotional memory __ amaygdala pts __
boost, don't
Amygdala pts remember __ than control pts for emotional memory
Focus more on __ details related to emotional context and loose the __ peripheral details
gist, unrelated
what 3 things may make amygdala pts different?
1. etiology: how they got the damage
2. Timing: when it occurs
3. extent of damage

During the horror film study: amygdala pts can do what, and can't do what?
Can identify scenes that should be scary
Don't have SCR - didn't show any fear
What were the results of the gist vs peripheral detail study?
Putting people in an emotional state caused them to remember more gist info.
opposite for amygdala pts
More amygdala have left more bias for __ memory
Having larger HC better for __ memory
MTL amnesics w/out amygdala damage remember __ info, SM shows the opposite
Connections: conditioned emotional learning:
amygdala connections back on self
procedural memory, choke or freeze under pressure

HPA modulates:
other parts of the body, controls arousal and stress
Neurohormonal modulation

All pts wit amygdala damage show defects in __ emotion but not all show defects in __/__ effects
Cortisol effects on memory:
short term can be benifical to encoding, consolidation and retrieval, but too much have negative effects on MTL and rememberence goes down
Long-term effects of high cortiosl:
detrimental: system adapts to not be in stressful situations at all times, so when are have harder time with declarative, assns/context, and consolidation
Widespread effects of high cortisol:
increase heartbeat, shuts down reproductive tract, GI tract and decrases neurogenesis
Short term cortisol increase or decrease neurogenesis?
Mood-dependent effects:
version of state/context effects
match b/w mood at encoding and retrieval - mood not very powerful cue, not specific, more general
Mood - congruent effects:
easier to recall memories that match current emotional tone
More specific, more bias to search thru networks
If you have test anxiety what is the best suggestion?
Before the exam, sit down and write about all anxieties - made diff in score for students w/ high test anxiety - no diff for students w/out high test anxiety
McGaugh Memory modulation hypothesis:
effects on consolidation: cortisol effecs consolidation
LaBar argues what stage of memory affected?
encoding, retrieval affected too
memories assocated w/ betrayed have less of response competition than hungry, will be remembered better
What did the beta=blocker control subjects show?
No better memory for the emotional information at the story suggesting emotion and amygdala important for encoding
How are beta blockers used in PTSD?
For prevention/treatment: if someone has traumatic experience and gets a dose of beta-blocker, seem to be good a blocking emotional part of the memory
What is the DM effect?
differences related to subsequent memory
What mediates why brain regions show bigger response for items remembered than forgotten?
mediated by arousal and a little valence, nothing for neutral
More interactions DM effects corelates for __ but not ____ memories
emotional, nonemotional
With more emotional information HC
more arousal
when retrieve memory very similar the meomry becomes flexible, unconsolidated state, can break apart associations and reform the memory
Is it effective to block emotional memrories/disrupt the link b/w emotion and memory?
some effectivenes if given immediately after traumatic event, reconsolidate effects less clear
High arousal state may impair ability to retrieve __ info
3 regions of the brain that show more activation when recognized as old then when rejected as new:
HC, amygdala and entrohinal cortex
Retrieving emotional memories: recollection vs familiarty: amygdala, HC, entorhinal cortex:
Amgdala: recollection
HC: recollection
Entorhinal cortex: maybe familiarity

Why may it not be Really recollection?
distinctiveness, deep and relational encoding, doesn't fit well with gist vs details idea, remember-know is a subjective judgement
Don't know for sure if it's real
Most common lab procedure to measure fear:
shock and SCR
What interactions with sensory cortex and motor and ANS and amygdala show?
amygdala integrates sensory info about threats across these routes: defensive rxns by controlling autonomic and motor output centers
What amygdala interactions with frontal lobes and HC help accomplish?
aquisition and suppresion (extinction) of fear to cues enviornment
Memory modulated hypothesis:
following an emotionally arousing experience, the amygdala engages in adrenergic and cortiosl stress-hormone systems to promote memory
What characteristics of memory might the amygdala activation be related to, other than strength?
vivedness, recollection/familiarity, physiological changes that generate feeling states
What kind of emotion-memory interactions not strongly related to arousal and amygdala?
cortical interactions and hormonal engagement
2 Pros for if familiarity vs recollection discoveries:
1. distinctiveness
2. deep vs relational encoding
2 cons for the familiarity vs recollection discoveries:
1. doesn't fit well with the gist vs detail
2. knowing/remembering is subjective

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