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Psych 346 Exam 2 3


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Why is sleep important for memory?
The process recycles important (central ideas) through consolidation
What are important characteristics of Ebbinghaus study of memory?
- He ran carefully controlled experiments in the lab
- He ignored how memory worked in the real world
What did Bartlett study?
The recall of complex material
Important takeaways from Bartlett's study as compared to Ebbinghaus?
-Examined recall errors to understand enconding and storing processes
-used informal testing methods
-stressed participant's effort after meaning
-assumed schemas

What does effort after meaning mean? Who came up with this?
Bartlett: when faced with something don't understand one will try and put meaning onto it
When does simple repetition work?
When don't have to know the semantic structure - language learning
What did the Glenberg, Smith, Green study find about repetition? Describe this study
Found that maintenance didn't help memory of an already known stimulus because recall test relied on meaningful links between known words which depended on deeper semantic features
What did the Mechanic study find on repition?
Maintenance did help in one condition of unfamiliar stimulus that needed to be learned from scratch. Repeating an unfamiliar stimuli boosts repeition in phonological LTM
Why do we do effort after meaning?
We try to understand/impose meaning on the tings we precieve and experience - it's hard not to organize
Gestalt Psych definition:
The whole is greater than the sum of all parts
Why will you remember numbers better in the context of letters?
Because they stick out - gestalt psychology, distinctiveness, serial position curve
What is incidental learning?
Things that immediately grab attention - richer stimuli, learning w/out trying to learn
How does semantic clustering work?
If given a list of words, will recall them in semantic clustering - does require effort, so older adults are better - requires executive fxn
What did the Tulving and Pearlstone experiment on learning long lists of words show?
Memory is much better when given a category to recall - however can lead to errors

What kind of material is easier to learn?
pitfall of organized material for memory? What is needed as well?
can lead to errors.
Distinctiveness needed - categories may lead you to think things are there that actually are not
How does encoding and retrieval work for predictability processing?
Encoding: provide structure to help organize learning, pick strategies, give cues as to what dimensions to look for...
Retrieval: serves as cue to help guide and organize memory in search
How does distinctiveness (item-specific) processing use encoding and retrieval?
Encoding: more attention and deeper/more elaborative processing
Retrieval: can distinguish correct item form alternative. Can help with knowing what item came from a specific episode
When are imagery and mnemonics useful?
Method of loci and speeches: attach specific ideas to specific locations and when want to remember mentally walk thru that location
Acroynms/other codes are good for remembering long/detailed info - imagery for vocab
What do brain images show for imagery and mnemonics with verbal/visual?
-No difference between if people used verbal or visual strategies.
-If people said they used verbal - used more LPFC and verbal elaboration
-If people had visual strategy - verbal activity doesn't matter, only visual

What is the dual coding hypothesis?
Concrete words (things we can visualize) are easier to remember/learn than abstract words because there are 2 routes of retrieval (visual/semantic)
What are 3 characteristics of skilled memory?
1. encode meaningfully using preexisting knowledge
2. attach retrieval cues to the structure based on pre-existing knowledge
3. process becomes faster with practice

Which level of processing is best and why?
Semantic "deeper" best for memory
What is transfer-appropriate processing?
An idea that semantic memory is only better if you're being tested on meaning - A good match b/w how you learn the info and how you'll be tested on it
What are the brain overlap in episodic/semantic memory?
There's lot's of overlap but
Semantic uses: LPFC
Episodic uses: RPFC

More activity in the ___ the more likely to remember it later on
What did the Morris et. al. study show about LOP?
It is important that the test match the way something is learned - encoding to match retrieval
2 central features of Bartlett's approach:
1. Effort after meaning: participant's actively work after meaning to try and capture essence of meaning
2. Schemas: representations of knowledge
How does Bartlett's approach differ from Ebbinghaus's?
Bartlett believed there was effort after meaning and memory lead by schemas whereas Ebbinghaus believed constricted memory into experiment and stripped pre-existing meaning to words
Are schemas more likely to influence our memory performance after short or long delays and why?
Longer delays because schemas represent social and cultural norms of knowledge - more likely to go with schema after delay because it's what you know
What did the ambiguous figures study show about encoding and retrieval?
People are influenced by a cue - if told ambiguous figure was dumbbells would draw it more like that than if said it was eyeglasses - encoding cues influence retrieval
Depth of processing definition:
The more deeply an item is processid, the better it'll be retained
Why do semantic judgments lead to better recall? (time vs elaboration)
It takes longer to do deeper processing
Transfer appropriate meaning definition:
Proposal that retention is best when the mode of encoding and mode of retrieval are the same
Deep conditions (semantic processing) better for __ tests
Shallow conditions (phonological) better for __
maintenance reharsal definition:
process of reharsal whereby items are "kept in mind" but not processed more deeply - continue to process an item at the same level
Elaborative rehearsal:
items are not simply kept in mind but are processed either morre deeply or more elaboratively
subjective organization:
strategy where learner attempts to organize unstructured material to enhance learning
Why does semantic coding help?
Deeper processing leads to richer representation for sound or printed appearnce of the word
Hemispheric Encoding and Retrieval Asymmetry hypothesis: encoding of episodic memories involves the left front lobe whereas retrieval depends on the right frontal lobe
visual encoding and episodic retrieval

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