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Terms

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Aversive racism
– People who are against minorities but also possess strong egalitarian values, so instead of showing their beliefs, they suppress them and it comes out as favouritism for their own group (i.e. favouritism towards whites)
Bogus-pipeline technique
An attitude-assessment technique that reduces social desirability in answers by using a fake polygraph to get participants to truthfully respond to emotional/affective questions
Demand characteristics
Aspects of an experimental situation that lead participants to form their own hypotheses about what the experiment is about and what behaviour the experimenter would like them to show
Modern racism
A subtle form of prejudice that is only expressed when the individual believes it is safe, acceptable, or easily rationalizable
Social desirability
Presenting oneself and one’s attitudes as very positive in order to be socially accepted even if it deviates from your true beliefs
Symbolic racism
Anti minority prejudice originating from the belief that minorities violate traditional American values
What was the Bodenhausen and Macrae reading about?
They studied how stereotypes are automatic. They looked at low prejudices people and studied how they have egalitarian views, and with these egalitarian views, if a stereotype comes to their mind, they try to avoid it. Bodenhausen and Macrae proved that if low prejudiced individuals are under a cognitive load, they will have less resources to suppress their judgements and will actually use stereotypes because they can no longer maintain the effort.
What was the Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The IAT test by Grrenwald, Mcgee and Schwartz about?
The IAT is a measure to show implicit attitudes of individuals that come to mind automatically. The way it measures this is by assessing the association between a target-concept discrimination and an attribute dimension.
How an individual feels or the IAT Effect is defined as the mean latency between the two conditions
In experiment 1, flowers and instruments were more positively viewed implicitly than insects and weapons even though explicitly there was no correlation of this.
In experiment 2, Koreans and Japanese were given an IAT test to show that each liked their ingroup. They voted if a Korean name or Japanese name was more positive to them. It was shown that the IAT was effective in determining participants’ ethnic groups
In experiment 3, it was very similar to experiment 2. Black and white names were put on a screen and participants were asked to do the IAT by associating them with the words of pleasant or unpleasant and the results showed whites has faster responses of white and pleasant than black and pleasant
In sum the variation across the experiments suggests that explicit measures may have been more responsive to self-presentational forces that can mask the implicit attitudes that participants truly believe




What were the findings of the study of shooting armed and unarmed white or black people? (3 findings)
- People like to shoot more often than not shoot.

- More errors were made when the target was unarmed

- White participants don’t shoot (error) when a white person was armed



What were the findings of the SDO studies? (2 studies)
- Everyone whether high or low SDO loves their ingroup.

- But in study 2 it found that after threat, High SDO loved their group more while hating outgroups and Low SDO showed reduced ingroup bias.

What is a need for structure and what are its implications?
A need for structure is seeing in black and white and it may predispose someone to being prejudice
What did the blinking study and exposure to black vs white faces study show (motivation to control prejudice)?
It showed that legitimately egalitarian people (High int/Low ext) showed no bias, (High Int/High ext) showed a dislike for blacks when it’s hard to control

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