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Age effects
The consequences of being a given chronological age
Discrimination against someone because of his or her age
Alzheimer’s disease
A dementia involving a progressive atrophy of cortical tissue and marked by memory impairment, involuntary movements of limbs. occasional convulsions, intellectual deterioration and psychotic behaviour
Cognitive reserve hypothesis
The theory that high education levels delay the clinical expression of dementia because the brain develops backup or reserve neural structures as a form of neuroplasticity
Cohort effects
The consequences of having been born in a given year and having grown up during a particular time period with its own unique pressures, problems, challenges and oppotunities
Cross-sectional studies
Studies in which different age groups are compared at the same time.
A state of great mental confusion in which consciousness is clouded, attention cannot be sustained and the stream of thought and speech is incoherent. The person is probably disoriented emotionally erratic, restless, or lethargic and often has illusions, delusions and hallucinations
Deterioration of mental faculties - memory, judgement, abstract thought, control of impulses, intellectual ability - that impairs social and occupational functioning and eventually changes the personality
Longitudinal studies
Investigation that collects information on the same individuals repeatedly over time, perhaps over many years, in an effort to determine how phenomena change
Neurofibrillary tangles
Abnormal protein filaments present in the cell bodies of brain cells in patients with Alzheimer's disease
Schizophrenia in an older adult
Small, round areas composed of remnants of lost neurons and beta-amyloid, a waxy protein deposit, present to the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease
Selective mortality
A possible confound in longitudinal studies, whereby the less healthy people in a sample are more likely to drop out of the study over time
Sleep apnea
A respiratory disorder in which breathing ceases repeatedly for a period of 10 seconds or more hundreds of times throughout the night
Subjective age bias
A tendency to feel younger than one's chronological age in a way that may reflect an age bias
Time-of-measurement effects
A possible confound in longitudinal studies whereby conditions at a particular point in time can have a specific effect on a variable that is being studied over time

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