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A group of stimulating drugs that produce heightened levels of energy and in large doses, nervousness, sleeplessness and paranoid delusions
A biological drug treatment fir drinking problems that causes a person to feel nauseous if he or she drinks alcohol
A class of synthetic sedative drugs that are addictive and in large doses can cause death by almost completely relaxing the diaphragm
An anti-hypertensive drug that shows some promise in helping people wean themselves from substance dependence
A pain-reducing, stimulating, and addictive alkaloid obtained from coca leaves, which increases mental powers, produces euphoria, heightens sexual desire, and in large doses causes paranoia and hallucinations
Conditioning theory of tolerance
The notion that tolerance and extinction are learned responses and environmental cues become associated with addictive substances through Pavlovian conditioning
Controlled drinking
A pattern of alcohol consumption that is moderate and avoids the extremes of total abstinence and of inebriation
Covert sensitization
A form of aversion therapy in which the person is told to imagine undesirable attractive situations and activities while unpleasant feelings are being induced by imagery
Acting on the same receptors as methadone does with heroin
Delirium tremens (DTs)
An acute form of delirium (often referred to as "the shakes") caused by withdrawal from addictive substances
Denormalization belief
A belief that reflects widespread social disapproval (e.g. society's current lack of approval of smoking).
Dependence susceptibility
The tendency for some people to be much more sensitive and prone to becoming addictive than are other people
The initial stage in weaning an addicted person from a drug involves medical supervision of the sometimes painful withdrawal
Disease model
Also called the medical model. A conceptual model that maintains that dysfunction stems from internal biological processes and factors within the individual. The medical model is more likely to reflect psychiatry rather than psychology.
Drug-Stroop Task
A task to assess implicit cognitions believed to be involved in vulnerability to addiction. The task assesses whether people respond slower when provided with words that they must colour identify (e.g. the word is "blue") but the word reflects drug-related content (e.g. "vodka")
A relatively new hallucinogen that is chemically similar to mescaline and the amphetamines
Explicit cognition
The controlled thought processes and beliefs that can be consciously deliberated upon in a person's awareness
Feedforward mechanisms
Anticipatory, regulatory responses made in anticipation of a drug that enables us to anticipate drug effects before they occur
Fatal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Retarded growth of the developing fetus and infant; cranial, facial and limb anomalies; and mental retardation caused by heavy consumption of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy
An unpredictable recurrence of psychedelic experiences from an earlier drug trip
Guided self-change
An approach to treating addiction and other types of disorders that emphasizes personal responsibility and problem-solving techniques that foster a sense of self-reliance
A drug or chemical whose effects include hallucinations. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin and mescaline are often called "psychedelic."
Harm reduction therapy
A form of treating addiction and other types of disorders that focuses on reducing the harmful consequences to some degree rather than striving initially for absolute abstinence
The dried resin of the cannabis plant, stronger in its effects than the dried leaves and stems that constitute marijuana
An extremely addictive narcotic drug derived from morphine
Heroin antagonists
Drugs, such as naloxone that prevent a heroin user from experiencing any high
Heroin substitutes
Narcotics, such as methadone, that are cross-dependent with heroin and thus replace it and the body's craving for it
Implicit cognition
Cognition that involves automatic appraisal of cues that is more uncontrolled and automatic and perhaps not subject to conscious awareness
D-lysergic acid diethylamide, a drug synthesized in 1938 and discovered by accident to be a hallucinogen in 1943
A drug derived from the dried and ground leaves and stems of the female hemp plant, Cannabis sativa
Maturing out phenomenon
The overall tendency for peak drinking levels to occur when people are in their mid-twenties and there is a sharp drop in drinking levels when people reach their late thirties
A hallucinogen and alkaloid that is the active ingredient of peyote
A synthetic addictive heroin substitute for heroin by eliminating its effects and the craving for it
Moral model
The conceptual view that excessive drinking or other forms of addiction reflect personal failings and personal choices of the afflicted individual because they have a deficit or moral failing in their character
An addictive narcotic alkaloid extracted from opium, used primarily as an analgesic and as a sedative
Motivational interviewing
A client-centered treatment approach that was used originally to treat addictions, The goal is to enhance a client's desire for change by resolving conflicts and ambivalence. The implicit notion is that a more positive treatment response will result if the client is highly motivated to improve.
A colourless poisonous alkaloid present in tobacco
A group of addictive sedatives that in moderate doses relieve pain and induce sleep
A chemical from a drug class that is similar to morphine and is used to reduce pain, and in some instances, to lead to sedation
One of the opiates, the dried, milky juice obtained from the immature fruit of the opium poppy. This addictive narcotic produces euphoria and drowsiness and reduces pain.
A pain medication that can be highly addictive
Polydrug (polysubstance) abuse
The misuse of more than one drug at a time, such as drinking heavily and taking cocaine.
A psychedelic drug extracted from the mushroom Psilocybe mexicana.
Second-hand smoke
Also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke, the smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, which contains higher concentrations of ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine, and tar than does the smoke inhaled by the smoker
A drug that slows bodily activities, especially those of the central nervous system; it is used to reduce pain and tension and to induce relaxation and sleep
Self-medication theory of addiction
A theory that drinking is motivated highly by a desire to cope in order to reduce an aversive state
A drug that increases alertness and motor activity and at the same time reduces fatigue, allowing an individual to remain awake for an extended period of time. Examples are cocaine and amphetamines.
Substance abuse
The use of a drug to such an extent that the person is often intoxicated throughout the day and fails in important obligations and in attempts to abstain, but there is no physiological dependence
Substance dependence
The abuse of a drug sometimes accompanied by a physiological dependence on itm made evident by tolerance and withdrawal symptoms; also called addiction
Substance-related and addictive disorders
The new DSM-5 category that now encompasses the previously identified disorders of substance abuse and substance dependence.
A physiological process in which greater and greater amounts of an addictive drug are required to produce the same effect.
Negative physiological and psychological reactions evidenced when a person suddenly stops taking an addictive drug; cramps, restlessness, and even death are examples

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