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A negative symptom in schizophrenia marked by poverty of speech and of speech content
A negative symptom in schizophrenia in which the individual is unable to feel pleasure
Antipsychotic drugs
Drugs that diminish psychotic features. Also called neuroleptics because they produce side effects similar to the symptoms of a neurological disease
A negative symptom of schizophrenia marked by an inability to form close relationships and to feel intimacy
Atypical antipsychotics
A class of drugs (e.g. neuroleptics) used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders that were developed to eliminate side effects, including problems with motor control
A negative symptom in schizophrenia in which the individual lacks interest and drive
Catatonic immobility
A fixity of posture, sometimes grotesque, maintained for long periods, with accompanying muscular rigidity, trancelike state of consciousness, and waxy flexibility
Catatonic schizophrenia
A subtype of schizophrenia whose primary symptoms alternate between stuporous immobility and excited agitation
Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET)
A treatment for schizophrenia that involves competence-based training in cognitive capacities and skills (e.g. attention, memory, and problem solving) and social-cognitive skills (e.g. conversing with someone)
Delusional disorder
A disorder in which the individual has persistent persecutory delusions or delusional jealousy and is very often contentious but has no thought disorder or hallucinations
Delusional jealousy
The unfounded conviction that one's mate is unfaithful, the individual may collect small bits of "evidence" to justify the delusion
Beliefs contrary to reality, firmly held in spite of evidence to the contrary, common in paranoid disorders: of control, belief that one is being manipulated by some external force such as radar, television, or a creature from outer space; of grandeur, belief that one is an especially important or powerful person; of persecution, belief that one is being plotted against or oppressed by others
Dementia praecox
An older term for "schizophrenia,: chosen to describe what was believed to be an incurable and progressive deterioration of mental functioning beginning in adolescence
Disorganized schizophrenia
A subtype of schizophrenia in which the person has diffuse and regressive symptoms; the individual is given to silliness, facial grimaces and inconsequential rituals and has constant;y changeable moods and poor hygiene. There are few significant remissions and eventually considerable deterioration. This form of schizophrenia was formerly called "hebephrenia."
Disorganized speech (thought disorder)
Problems in organizing ideas and in speaking so that a listener can understand. Also known as "formal thought disorder."
Dopamine theory
The view that schizophrenia arises from an increase in the number of dopamine receptors
Expressed emotion (EE)
In the literature on schizophrenia, the amount of hostility and criticism directed from other people to the client, usually within a family
Flat affect
A deviation in emotional response wherein virtually no emotion is expressed whatever the stimulus, emotional expressiveness is blunted, or a lack of expression and muscle tone is noted in the face
Grandiose delusions
Found in paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and mania, an exaggerated sense of one's importance, power, knowledge, or identity.
Perceptions in any sensory modality without relevant and adequate external stimuli
Ideas of reference
Delusional thinking that reads personal significance into seemingly trivial remarks and activities of others and completely unrelated events
Inappropriate affect
Emotional responses that are out of context, such as laughter when hearing sad news.
In schizophrenia, an aspect of thought disorder wherein verbal expression is marked by disconnectedness, fragmented thoughts, and jumbled phrases.
Loose associations (derailment)
In schizophrenia, an aspect of thought disorder wherein the client has difficulty sticking to one topic and drifts off on a train of associations evoked by an idea from the past
Negative symptoms
Behavioural deficits in schizophrenia, such as flat affect and apathy, Contrast with positive symptoms.
Paranoid schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia in which the client has numerous systematized delusions as well as hallucinations and ideas of reference. He or she may also by agitated, angry, argumentative, and sometimes violent. Types of schizophrenia have been dropped in the DS-5 in favour of the general term "Schizophrenia."
Positive symptoms
In schizophrenia behavioural excesses, such as hallucinations and bizarre behaviour. Contrast with negative symptoms.
Prefrontal lobotomy
A surgical procedure that destroys the tracts connecting the frontal lobes to lower centres of the brain; once believed to be an effective treatment for schizophrenia.
Residual schizophrenia
The diagnosis given to people who have has an episode of schizophrenia but who presently show no psychotic symptoms, though signs of the disorder do exist. This diagnosis is no longer possible given changes in the DSM-5.
A group of psychotic disorders characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion and behaviour; disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related; faulty perception and attention, bizarre disturbances in motor activity; flat or inappropriate emotions; and reduced tolerance for stress in interpersonal relations. The patient withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations.
Schizophrenogenic mother
A cold, dominant, conflict-inducing mother formerly believed to cause schizophrenia in her child.
Social distance
A measure that is used to assess the extent to which stigma exists by determining how much contact exists with and how close a person is willing to get to someone with a disorder such as schizophrenia
Social-selection theory
An attempt to explain the correlation between social class and schizophrenia by proposing that people with schizophrenia move downward in social status.
Sociogenic hypothesis
Generally, an idea that seeks causes in social conditions for example, that being in a low social class can cause one to become schizophrenic
Undifferential schizophrenia
The diagnosis given for clients whose symptoms do not fit any listed category or meet the criteria for more than one subtype
Waxy flexibility
An aspect of catatonic immobility in which the person's limbs can be moved into a variety of positions and maintained that way for unusually long periods of time.

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