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In anxiety symptoms are ________ and _________?

Give example too

Physiological (Heart rate) and Cognitive (Negative thoughts)
To be diagnosed with anxiety what are the criteria?
The symptoms of anxiety have to be distressing and disabling

There has to be no objective threat

What are 4 anxiety disorders?

Panic Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Separation Anxiety

What is an item that can be used to determine anxiety?
The Beck Anxiety inventory
What is a phobia?
A fear that is out of proportion and has no real reason or basis
Would a fear of sharks at UTSC be a phobia? Yes or no and why?
No, because it’s groundless
What are the 2 types of phobias?
Specific phobia and Social phobia
What is a specific phobia?
An unwarranted fear caused by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation
What is a social phobia?
A persistent irrational fear linked to the presence of other people
What are the 3 therapies for phobias?
Virtual reality

Systematic desensitization


How does systematic desensitization work?
We rank events from least to most provoking of anxiety in a situation. Then we couple relaxation training with each step and move on until we accomplish all of them.
How does flooding work?
It is an extreme measure where we throw the person into the problem situation to show them there is no problem. It’s like baptism by fire.
What is OCD?
It is a disorder where people have certain obsessions (intrusive thoughts) that are distressing and use their compulsions (repetitive behaviours) to try and relieve anxiety but it doesn’t relieve anything
Hoarding, symmetry, order and balance and things common in?
OCD patients
What is Generalized anxiety disorder?
It is chronic uncontrollable worry about all things
What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
It is extreme responses to a severe stressor usually after a traumatic event (i.e. war or rape) where the patient experiences flashbacks and stress from that event. They also try to avoid related stimuli.
What is Acute stress disorder?
It is where a traumatic event occurs and the patient experiences large stress for a short amount of time less than 1 month usually
What is a panic disorder?
It is a sudden, inexplicable attack of panic like symptoms such as heart rate, breathing, nausea, etc. The person also feels depersonalization (feeling like they’re looking at themselves as a third person) and derealization (feeling overwhelmed as if the world is not real)
What is agoraphobia?
It is a cluster of fears centering on being in open spaces and leaving the home. It is often linked to panic disorder.
Cued vs uncued panic attacks difference?
Cued panic attacks are phobias because something triggers it, but uncued panic attacks is related to panic disorders because we don’t know what triggers it.
Eating disorders are comorbid with?
Depression Anxiety

Substance use and abuse

Personality disorders

Who suffers more with eating disorders?
What is the most common eating disorder and what is second?
Binge eating and second is bulimia
Anorexia basically means?
Loss of appetite
What will anorexia patients exhibit?
Refusal to maintain a normal body weight, fear of gaining weight, amenorrhea and distorted body image
What are the 2 subtypes of anorexia and explain them?
The restricting subtype and the binge eating/purging subtype. The restricting subtype restricts their calorie intake alone. The binge eating/purging subtype vomits after eating but loses weight.
At what age does anorexia nervosa start and why?
It starts in late childhood and the early teenage years because we become cognizant of what other people are thinking of us
What is the most deadly eating disorder, what is its recovery rate and how long does it last?
Anorexia nervosa is the most deadly, it has a 70% recovery rate and lasts 6-8 years
Pressures to be thin, the dieting industry and stigma towards obesity are all factors contributing to?
Eating disorders
What happens in bulimia?
The patient eats food and feels disgusted after and gets rid of the disgusted feeling by vomiting.
What are the 2 subtypes in bulimia and explain them?
The purging subtybe (they will vomit their food) and the non purging subtybe (they will exercise or use laxatives).
What happens in binge eating?
The patient eats food usually large amounts and feels guilt and disgust but they don’t get rid of it.
What theory can explain eating disorders?
The family systems theory
What is the basis of the family systems theory?
Lack of conflict resolution in the family causes eating disorders. Children with eating disorders are vulnerable and family conflicts lead to their disorders because they use their disorder to bring the family together and avoid conflict.
What are the 4 family characteristics in the family systems theory?



Lack of conflict resolution

Enmeshent family?
Extreme form of over involvement where the parent speaks for the child because they think they know how they think and feel
Overprotective family?
Family members have an extreme level of concern for each others well being
Rigid family?
Families have a tendency to try to maintain the status quo and avoid dealing effectively with events that require change
Lack of conflict resolution family?
Families never resolve conflict or are always in conflict
In both somatic symptom disorders and dissociative disorders __________________ can be found for them and they tend to occur after a ________________?
No cause, A traumatic life stressor
What is a Somatic symptom disorder?
When a patient says they have bodily symptoms that suggest a physical defect or dysfunction but have no physiological basis for their complaint
What is a Dissociative disorder?
When a patient has disruptions of consciousness, memory and identity
What is Body dysmorphic disorder?
A preoccupation with imagined or exaggerated defects in physical appearance.
Why is body dysmorphic disorder more prevalent now?
Because we care more about the judgements of others today and we are more narcissistic.
What is hypochondriasis?
It is also called illness anxiety disorder and it’s where you have a preoccupation with fears of having a serious illness
What is conversion disorder?
When a patient complains of neurological issues, but has no basis for them (i.e. Someone can’t move their hand, loss of sensation, loss of vision, but there is no lesion)
Malingering disorder?
A person will intentionally make up symptoms lying to gain something there is an incentive
Factitious disorder?
A person makes up symptoms unintentionally without their knowledge maybe to have attention they are missing
In both malingering and factitious disorder, patients will?
Present symptoms that have no basis
People who are malingering will show what 2 things?
Atypical symptom endorsement and Measures of dissimulation (i.e. Forced choice recognition)
Patients with what disorder are the hardest to treat and why?
Patients will somatoform disorders are the hardest to treat because they don’t want to get better and they won’t like it if you tell them their problem is all in their head
What is Dissociative amnesia?
When a person is acutely unable to recall important personal information about themselves. Their episodic memory (memory about things they did) is lost but their semantic memory (memory about facts like the capital of Canada) is intact.
What is Dissociative fugue?
When a person suddenly leaves home and work and assumes a new identity. They don’t remember anything about their life and they start a whole new one from scratch.
What is Dissociative identity disorder (DID)?
When a person has 2 or more ego states that exists separately from one another. Each personality has it’s one traits and they even have different hand writing and time. Each personality doesn’t know each other either.
What are mood disorders?
Disabling disturbances in emotion
What is depression?
It is an emotional state of great sadness and feeling of worthlessness and guilt
What is mania?
It is an emotional state or mood of intense elation
What is an item that can be used to determine depression?
The Beck depression inventory
What is the difference between bipolar I and bipolar II?
In both bipolar disorders patients have feelings of depression but in bipolar I patients have a very manic phase were they lose touch with reality and in bipolar II patients have a manic phase that is very mild which is why bipolar II disorder is also referred to as hypomania
What are mixed episodes?
When a patient experiences a full range of the manic and depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder
What are the 4 mood specifiers?
Psychotic features

Melancholic features

Catatonic features

Seasonal features

What are psychotic features?
Hallucinations or dillusions
What are melancholic features?
When someone is anhedonic has no pleasure and is depressed
What are catatonic features?
When someone has severe motor abnormalities and is so apathetic they will lie in bed
What are seasonal features?
When the onset of depression or bipolar disorder has a seasonal onset
What is cyclothymic disorder?
Chronic swings between elation and depression not severe enough to warrant the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Paired symptoms hypomania and depression.
What is dysthymic disorder?
It is chronic depression
What is double depression?
It is when someone meets the criteria for dysthymic disorder but has periods of 2 weeks that meet major depressive disorder
What is the basis of Beck’s cognitive therapy?
The basis is that negative thoughts about the self are fueled by cognitive biases
What are Beck’s 5 cognitive biases?
Arbitrary inference

Selective abstraction




What is avoidance conditioning?
A method that shows phobias are learned.

People avoid a neutral stimulus if it is paired with a frightening event (the unconditioned stimulus)

Then the person reduces their fear by reinforcing the run away reaction

What is modelling?
When a person can learn through imitating

Also called vicarious learning

Prepared learning
When certain stimuli are more likely than others to become classically conditioned it is called prepared learning

Such as a spider being more likely to become fear provoking than a lamb

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