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Is statistical infrequency a good or bad way of determining abnormality?

And why?

It is a bad way of determining abnormality

Because if someone is above average at for example a memory test, they would be considered crazy

Abnormal behaviour is defined by how many points?

What are those points?

Abnormal behaviour is defined by 5 points

1. Statistical infrequency

2. Violation of norms

3. Personal distress

4. Disability or dysfunction

5. Unexpectedness









-Violation of norms
Behaviour that violates unwritten rules of what is accepted by the general public (i.e. homosexuality)
-Statistical infrequency
If the behaviour is infrequent in the majority of a population
Personal distress
If the behaviour gives you a feeling of uneasiness and you don't want to be doing it
Disablity or dysfunction
If a behaviour interferes with your life and makes you unable to do something physically (i.e. work, sleep)
Unexpectedness
A behaviour we don't expect
What type of doctor assesses objectively?
A psychologist
Demonology
The doctrine that devils or spirits can be inside the brain controlling your thoughts and actions
Exorcism
Torturing the person who is thought to have spirits by making their body feel uncomfortable by doing terrible things to it
Trepanning
Putting a hole in the skull to release the demons or devils in demonology
What was the first test of demonology?
Testing whether someone was a witch or not
How did they test whether someone was a witch?
They put the person on a teetertotter and put them in water.

If they survived, they were a witch.

If they didn't survive, they're dead.

So it wasn't a good test.





Franz Gall was the originator of ___________?

He _________ and _________ to find out that?

-Originator of phrenology

- He observed and listened to find out that different parts of the brain had different functions

Phrenology is related to?
fMRI
Patients with psychological disorders were kept in _______ and were called?
- Were kept in asylums and were called names like insane, idiots, lunatics
Patients who were kept in asylums were treated ______ and people ______________________?
- Patients in asylums were treated badly

-People who came to see them were charged admission like a circus

Who was tan?
- He was a patient of Paul Broca who could only say the word tan

- He could understand what people where saying but he couldn't communicate

tan had what was called _________________?
Tan had Broca's aphasia
What is Broca's area?
The left inferior frontal lobe
The left inferior frontal lobe (Broca's area) is the area of ________________________?
The area of the faculty of speech production
What did Paul Broca used to do?
- He followed patients to their death and took their brain's to examine them

- That is how he discovered Broca's area

What is Wernicke's aphasia?
- When people can communicate well, but can't take instructions
What is Wernicke's area?
- The inferior left temporal lobe.
John Harlow studied _________ _______ in ________ _____?
John Harlow studied executive disorder in Phineas Gage.
Who was Phineas Gage and what was his story?
- He was a worker for a rail company

- He was fixing a track and it exploded the bar went through his head and damaged his frontal lobe

- He was a good worker before, but he then became foul and illmannered



The inability to draw a clock and visual neglect (i.e. eating only one side of the plate) was caused by?

- It was common in what population?

- Damage to the right parietal lobe

- Common in people who came back from the war

Thanks to psychopharmacology, patients were _____________ and drugs can be used to?
- Thanks to psychopharmacology many patients were deinstitutionalized

- Drugs can be used to regulate people's disorders

Biological assessments for disorders do ____________ because?
- Biological assessments for disorders do not help everyone because they are incomplete
What was Aaron Beck important for?
- He was important for discovering that people's constructs and schemas about themselves can give rise to disorders
Paradigm
- Conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works

- The field or speciality that the scientist works in





How can paradigms create bias?
- The psychologist might want to perform a treatment on a patient based on what they are into (their paradigm how they think) instead of what treatment the patient should really get
Comorbidity
The co-occurrence of two disorders
Difference between genotype and phenotype
Genotype is an unobservable totality of genes we have at birth that can be turned on and off to give us disorders (i.e. huntingtons)

Phenotype is the totality of observable behavioural characteristics that we can measure. It's a mixture of genes and environment. (i.e. anxiety)

If a person with schizophrenia has a twin, what are the chances their twin will get it?
50%
If someone has a parent with schizophrenia what are the chances they will develop schizophrenia as well?
25%
If a person with schizophrenia has a twin, but were separated from them at birth what are the chances their twin will get it?
50%
Why are neurotransmitters important?
They give information on the ideology of disorders
What do we use to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Dopamine inhibitors
What are the two hemispheres of the brain?
The outer and the inner brain
The outer brain is responsible for?
Higher order cognition (i.e. the frontal lobe)
The inner brain is responsible for?
Motor behaviours and necessities
Neurotransmission
The process of when a neuron releases a neurotransmitter that binds to a receptor
Reuptake
Process by which released neurotransmitters are pumped back into the pre-synaptic, cell, making them available for enhancing transmission of nerve impulses
What lobes are responsible for vision?
The occipital lobes
What lobes are responsible for visual neglect?
The parietal lobes
What lobes are responsible for languages, non verbal communication, seizures and hallucinations?
The temporal lobes
What lobes are responsible for executive functions?
The frontal lobes
The left side of the frontal lobes are responsible for?
Apathy and the ability to learn new things
The right side of the frontal lobes are responsible for?
Mania and recalling of information
Anxiolytics treat?
Treat anxiety

Increase sleep, reduce anxiety, stress

Antidepressants treat?
Depression, pain disorders, eating disorders
The fact that a drug can treat many things shows?
Comorbidity and that a lot of disorders are not singular
Antipsychotics treat?
Psychotic disorders
Psycho-stimulants (such as amphetamines) treat?
People with ADHD and alzheimers to help cognition

But they are often abused to help focus

The psychoanalytic (Psychoananlysis) paradigm involves the?
Id, Ego and Super Ego
The Id
- The Id works on the pleasure principle and primary process thinking

- It wants what it wants and doesn't care how it gets it

The Ego
- The Ego works on the reality principle and secondary process thinking

- The Ego finds a balance between the Id and the Super Ego

The Super Ego
The Super Ego is the moral center and gives rules to the Id
How many defense mechanisms are there and what are they?
- There are 6 defense mechanisms

1. Repression
2. Denial
3. Projection
4. Displacement
5. Regression
6. Rationalization






Denial
Not accepting what happened
Projection
Telling people what you think about them

(i.e. Everyone's a butthole)

Displacement
Taking the anger that you have in one situation and taking it out on someone else
Regression
Reverting back to in earlier stage of development when you are threatened
Rationalization
Rationalizing something irrational to relieve anxiety
Repression
When a feeling is repressed from the consciousness to the unconsciousness because it is socially unacceptable
Free association
Freely telling the therapist whatever you feel in a therapy session
Resistances
When a patient in therapy stumbles on points because it causes them anxiety
Transference
When the patient transfers their feelings of a person they are talking about in therapy onto the therapist
Countertransference
When the therapist is aware of how they treat the client because it will impact how they reveal things to them
Humanistic and Existential paradigms bring?
They bring insight to the patient and the researcher

It involves unconditional positive regard (by showing the client love and positivity no matter what to help them with their growth)

In Gestalt therapy under existentialism we?
Live in the here and now, we don't care about what was in the past or the future
Law of effect is also called
Reinforcement
Modelling
Learning by watching and imitating others
Behaviourism focuses on?
Focuses on the study of observable behaviour rather than on consciousness
Cognitive sets are related to ______?
Schemas
Cognitive sets
We have so much information in our minds that we store it in folders called cognitive sets that shape the way we see the world

If they are distorted, they can give rise to psychological disorders

Cognition
Mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging and reasoning
Beck's cognitive behavioural therapy
- We study schemas and give feedback

- We study the things we say to ourselves and show how they are wrong

- We misinterpret things and make them bigger than they are



We calculate reliability through __________?
Through correlation
Relaibility
Consistency in measurement
What does virtual reality do for patients?
It desensitizes patients to situations where they feel anxious and helps people remember
Ecological validity
The methods, materials and setting of the study must approximate the real-world that is being examined
Tests for recognition memory are?
Very resilient
Perceverence is ___________ in scientific terms?
Stubborn
CT is to MRI as ____ is to ____?
SPECT is to PET
The _____________ and the ____________ and two of the most common screening measures?
The Beck depression inventory and the Beck anxiety inventory
Projective measures for psychological tests such as the inkblot test and thematic apperception test are _________?
Outdated
Why is screening a patient important?
Because it gives the therapist more insight on the patient before and interview and to give better evaluation
In clinical interviews the therapist asks what kind of questions and looks for what?
They ask open ended questions and looks at the patient's behaviour
What is an example of a structured/semi-structured interview?
The skid
There is no such thing as ______ without _________? and why?
There is no such thing as validity without reliability

Because with no consistency how can something be valid

Personality assessment inventory
A 344 item self-report questionnaire that tries to find out an individual's personality traits and characteristics
The principle behind all psychological and neuropsychological tests is __________?

Who's tests are not standardized?

- Normative comparison (They are all standardized)


- Beck's tests are not standardized


NIM (Negative impression management)

When is it high?

When NIM is high, a patient complains of much symptoms, everything is wrong
PIM (Positive impression management)

When is it high?

When PIM is high, a patient never complains, nothing is wrong
Projective hypothesis
The notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts
Projective techniques
Tests of personality that involve use of unstructured stimulus materials such as pictures, etc.
The psychodynamic paradigm relied on what?
Projective hypothesis
Some examples of projective techniques are?
The inkblot test and the thematic apperception test (TAT)
Intelligence tests are used for what?
Are used as a baseline for functioning
WASI is an abbreviated test of _____?
WAIS
The Wechsler intelligence scale tests test patients ________ and ___________?
Performance IQ and Verbal IQ
Which brain imaging techniques give static images?
CAT scan and MRI
Which brain imaging techniques are active and moving?
fMRI and PET
CAT scans can find _______?
Bleeding
MRI can find ________?
Lesions and atrophy
A disorder is not a disorder until?
Until the syndrome is characterized by disturbances or disability
There is nothing statistical about the _____?

Then what is it?

There is nothing statistical about the DSM

A classification guide for symptoms that we can generalize into a titled disorder so we can treat it better

The DSM's definition of a mental disorder excludes
1. Expectable or culturally sanctioned response to an event (i.e. People dressing like kiss at their concert)

2. Deviant behaviour (i.e. politics or homosexuality)

3. Conflicts between the individual and society (i.e. Ghandi starving himself)



Autistic spectrum disorders

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have problems with social interactions
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have attentional difficulties
Intellectual disability

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have a low IQ below a certain limit.

It used to be called mental retardation

Major depressive disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have various symptoms such as sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness, no appetite or large appetite
Mania

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will Talk fast, makes no sense, very up
Bipolar disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will swing from depressed to manic behaviour

Usually diagnosed with either mania or depression before being diagnosed with bipolar disorder

Specific phobia

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have an unwarranted fear of something (i.e. being bitten by a snake)
Panic disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have panic attacks (huge anxiety) that are triggered by random things
Generalized anxiety disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will experience anxiety at all times with nothing specific triggering it
Separation anxiety disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have anxiety when they are separated from some sort of object
Trichotillomania

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will pull out their hair
Somatic symptom disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will complain of many symptoms or pains, but have no physical basis for their symptoms or pains
Conversion disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will complain of neurological issues, but have no basis for them

(i.e. Someone can't move their hand, but there is no lesion)

Illness anxiety disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will be hypochondriac and think they have every disorder
Dissociative amnesia

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have a sudden loss of memory for a period in their life
Dissociative identity disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have multiple personalities
Depersonaliztion/Derealization disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will not recognize themselves as them

They feel like they are looking at themselves as an observer and not living their life

Sexual dysfunction

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will be unable to complete a sexual cycle which starts with arousal and ends with orgasm
Exhibitionism

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will get aroused by showing themselves
Voyeurism

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will get aroused by looking or spying at someone while they don't know
Frotteuristic disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will rub against people unknowingly
Sadism

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will get aroused by doing punishing things to people
Masochism

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will get aroused by having punishing things done to them
Insomnia

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have low amounts of sleep, have bad quality of sleep or have bad sleep timing
Parasomnias

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will experience abnormal things in their sleep such as sleepwalking or nightmares
Anorexia nervosa

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will restrict their calories, not eat, laxative or exercise
Bullimia nervosa

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will eat their food a lot of it, but get rid of it through vomitting, etc, they aren't skinny though
Binge eating disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will eat a lot but not try to get rid of the calories
Post traumatic stress disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will experience stress after a traumatic event (i.e. war, rape), have flashbacks and can't talk about it
Acute stress disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have stress right after a traumatic event, but it doesn't last long
Adjustment disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will having difficulty adjusting to things after the traumatic event
Intermittent explosive disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will have an explosive personality and can be very irritable for no reason
Conduct disorder

A patient with it will?

What is is a precursor to?



A patient with it will have bad behaviour, do crazy things, run away from home

It is a precursor to anti-social personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will be someone that wants to be alone, aloof, doesn't want friends
Narcissistic personality disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will think they are they best, look for appraisal, have high self-esteem
Antisocial personality disorder

A patient with it will?

A patient with it will be criminal like and have no respect for laws
Test-Retest reliability
The extent to which people being observed or taking the same test twice score in generally the same way
Alternate-form reliability
The extent to which scores on two forms of a test are consistent
Internal consistency reliability
The extent to which the items on a test are related to one another
Content validity
The extent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest
Criterion validity
The extent to which a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure
Construct validity
The extent to which scores or ratings on an assessment instrument relate to other variables or behaviours according to some theory or hypothesis
Cathartic method
A therapeutic procedure where a person recalls and relives an emotional catastrophe and feels the emotions to relieve suffering

Deck Info

153

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