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Time space compression
- Movement of people, materials things quickly across space which shrinks the world and changes our experiences in life

- Distance does not matter anymore because we have made advances in communication and travel technology

- As a result we live in constant flux and we are able to experience things from all over the world but we must remember that there is a power geometry and not everyone experiences time space compression in the same way

Rentier State
- A state that is disconnected locally, but connected globally

- The state accumulates capital from all around the world, but seems to be nowhere in terms of providing civil services for a country to be prosperous

- An example of this was in Kano where as a result of being a petrostate, the country had rapid unplanned growth and there was a lot of corruption

- This acted as instrument and obstacle because it grew the country and helped the elite, but no grow was had by the working population

Risk society
- Defined by Ullrich Beck about how in modernized societies where we are technologically driven we take risks as a given because of our desire to consume

- We have a desire to consume in rich societies which results in the creation of risks and hazards

- Since we are rich we treat these hazards with high ambivalence because we don't physically face the consequences

- To deal with the consequences we use ecological modernization where we use technicians to find technological solutions to our problems and organized irresponsibility where we ignore the consequences and they magnify

Normal accident
- Normal accident refers to how in society we have created a complex system so that accidents occur

- The name seems contradictory because accidents must always be normal to occur, but today disasters are a mix of natural hazards and human action

- People have exposure to risks that are increased based on certain factors such as age, gender, race, etc.

- Once a disaster occurs these factors make the negatives larger and media outlets play it off as normal although it was built into the system

Reflexive modernity
- An institutionalized activity or state of mind that involves people from highly developed societies where there is reflection using a cost benefit analysis on risks to see whether they objectively exist or not

- It creates an opportunity for rapid expansion of democracy by opening space because it involves consideration of risks at a global level which leads to international cooperation and the creation of new concepts to manage risk

Spatial fix
- Spatial fix is linked to globalization because it relates to how capitalism operates.

- Capitalism constantly needs to grow which creates conditions where expansion might be halted.

- Since it is halted we look for expansion outside otherwise known as looking for a spatial fix

- An example is if wages are too high in one country, it limits its ability to make profit, so this company moves to a new location where the wages are lower and more profit can be made

Militant particularism
- Politics is embedded in structures of feeling particular so we demand changes for us personally.

- Militant particularism is a way to satisfy everyone in politics because it refers to people fighting their own unique place based struggles

- When these individual struggles are properly brought together, general interest can be preserved and advanced so that each individuals goals are achieved and our differences are allowed to flourish

Carbon offsets
- Carbon offsets are one of the leading strategies to help climate change

- Carbon offsets allow carbon to be removed from the atmosphere and once this is done the reducer receives a permit that can be sold to someone who wants rights to emit carbon into the environment

- Carbon offsets are often criticized because it is hard to tell whether carbon was really removed

- Some companies use mundane tactics where they make claims there was a reduction when there wasn't which creates more pollution and marginalized people of the third world even more

Accumulation by dispossession
- Also called accumulation by decarbonization where carbon programs that are supposed to be offsetting carbon but are really depriving people of their means of production.

- Climate change can be seen as a new opportunity for growth so companies look to expand markets in the third world in order to get offsets which can be used to accumulate profits

- In search for profits, companies buy land very cheap which dispossesses the third world from their land and they are left with nothing but a little money and polluted land

- Is about the west and the self-representation of themselves.

- The west sees themselves as adequate through scientific desire and a European desire to figure things out

- The west thinks modernity came about as a result of their efforts.

- Occidentalism is enmeshed in the question of why do they hate us

- But the west never thinks about what they thinks about how their endeavours in the global south created a layout for poverty and hate of the south to the global north

Cultural amnesia
- Making a claim that the presense of empire makes positive changes to the world

- It is thought of as good while ignoring violence and subjugating people

- The reason why it is thought of as good is because of reasoning that if they didn't establish colonialism, certain cultures would remain degraded in worse off conditions, but this thought ends up degrading cultures as the other

Cultural nostalgia
- Is the idealization of other cultures and the thought that these cultures are timeless

- An example of this is Britain's idealization of India

- Cultural nostalgia is problematic as it displays society as unchanging and static and it doesn't recognize culture as changing and living things.

- Refers to the system of beliefs, values, methods and objects of a specific culture

- In western ethnoscience when we speak of science we are speaking of a particular thing

- We must think of how certain ways of thinking about knowledge become the dominant way of thinking about knowledge

- Because western ethnosicence has been used to rationalize oppressive imperialism and colonialism which is important it shows a connection between knowledge and power

Situated knowledge
- Refers to the ways in which knowledge and belief systems are produced and maintained so that they are coherent with dominant worldviews

- Circumstances determine the means of knowledge production and the kinds of knowledge produced because all knowledge is produced by actors who are situated in particular historical and geographic circumstances

- It also shoes the connection of how powerful people give out the knowledge that most know, which is important for progressive change in reducing forms of oppression

- Is a framework for understanding people dissimilar to yourself

- Orientalism is an archive established from the initial periods of contact with others by Europeans and we continue to use it to make sense of the unknown

- When we think about people as the other it creates a hierarchical structure

- The habits of the other are seen as inferior by comparison of how the west sees themselves

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