This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

lec1 stuffs


undefined, object
copy deck
Social Psychology
- Using scientific study or 5 scientific methods to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others.

- Social psych about individuals, sociology about group factors.

ABC's of social psychology
Affect - Anything with an emotional component (emotionas, feelings and mood)

Behaviour - Verbal and nonverbal actions are measured

Cognition - thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory

History in social psychology
History social psychology
- From the late 1800's psychology was a subfield of philosophy

- William James considered the father of psychology. Didn't do a lot of experiments but a lot of his theories were right without data

- Wundt did experimental psychology and opened the first experimental psychology lab. Mental events into numbers.

- Triplett experiment – performance affected by presence of others (cyclists slower training by themselves than with others)

- Lewin (father of social psychology)
- We don’t know anything about person’s MIND other than what they show called dyadic interactionism

- During WWII there was study of affective advertisements for war bonds and fear was the key feature

- Post WWII we wanted to discover how the nazi's could do this and there was the importance of milgram's obedience to authority theory

- Bystander apathy in the murder of kitty genovese. Something different is the jonestown suicide, don't drink the kool aid.

Interactionist perspective
- An emphasis on how both an individual's personality and environmental characteristics influence behaviour
Hypothetico-deductive scientific method/ experimental method
- Has 5 steps
- 1. Examine past knowledge/research

2. Form a theory

3. Operationalize theory into hypothesis

4. Test hypothesis

5. Revise theory

A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.
An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena.
Independent variable
A factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable.
Dependent variable
A factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable.
Methods of social psychology
- 5 methods of social psychology
1. Basic research
2. Applied research
3. Operational definition
4. Constructive validity
5. Qualitative and quantitative research

Basic research
Research designed to increase the understanding of human behaviour, often by testing hypotheses based on theory.
Applied research
Research designed to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical or social problems problems.
Operational definition
The specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable.
Construct validity
The extent to which the manipulations in an experiment really manipulate the conceptual variables they were designed to manipulate. And the measures used in a study really measure the conceptual variables they were designed to measure.
Qualitative research
The collection of data through open-ended responses, observation and interviews.
Quantitative research
The collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis.
Research designs
1. Correlational designs
2. Quasi-experimental designs
3. Experimental designs
4. Meta-analysis

Correlational designs
- Uses 2 dependent variables, no experimental manipulation so no random sampling.

- Issue is the third variable problem

- Need to perform an experiment to determine causality

Quasi-experimental designs
- Not manipulating anything and no causality. Example theory of mind.

- No experimental manipulation

- Uses a subject variable

Subject variable
- A variable that cannot be manipulated or randomly assigned, so it is neither an independent or dependent variable.

- A variable characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in a study.

Experimental designs
- Manipulated independent variable
- Random assignment
- Control group
- Independent variable causes dependent variable

A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects.
Random assignment
A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions.
Internal validity
The degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables.

Experiment properly done.

External validity
The degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations.
Mundane realism
The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world.
In the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants.
Accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant.
Informed consent
An individual's deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the research's description of what will be required during such participation.
Statistical significance
Odds are quite good, but not necessarily always perfect.

Possible it occurred by chance and is important in correlations.

Correlation coefficient
When researchers examine the relationship between variables they can measure the strength and direction of the relationship between variables and calculate the correlation coefficient.
Any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistics follow a student's t distribution if the null hypothesis is supported.
Statistical analyses
1. Statistical significance
2. Correlation coefficient
3. T-test

Deck Info