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Urban citizenship
- A process of claiming social, political, and economic rights in the city / make and remake urban space in order to assert a sense of belonging to the city.

- Emerged as a field of research in the late 1990s

- Explore the vast domain of groups, identities and appropriation and use of urban space to articulate claims that constitutes .

Ghettos in canadian cities?
- No, there is a high degree of racial concentration but it is not necessarily associated with greater neighbourhood poverty.
Transmigrant communities
- Communities who develop and maintain economic, social, organizational, religious, and political relations across national borders.

- People can live somewhere but not embrace the country and feel they are more from somewhere else

Global cities
- The heads of the global economy, we can scale cities based on traits like money, culture, transportation, etc.

- Immigrants usually go to global cities

- Global cities are place for negotiation of cultures, knowledge and powers between immigrant social groups

Public space
Central for democracy

- Back to ancient Greece where democracy developed

- Public space was the only way to express their wants and rights, visibility, demonstration.

Loss of public space
- Privitized space that immitates public space

- Public spaces become private spaces

- People who own the stores are white people that build for profit

- Everything you want to do in public spaces costs money

Revanchist city (an example of public space and privatization)
- The city in which powerful people take their revenge to reasserting their authority through
1. Gentrification - Renewal of run down inner city, kick poor people out and bring in rich people
2. Privatization
3. Deregulation

- Relation to movie because Giuliani is taking back the streets making them safe for the people that have money to spend. Gentre french for middle class. Another example regent park.

- Another example is Dundas Square. Racialized youth, homeless people, people who sold goods unlicensed were kicked out. It was public space but it is now regulated. Location is disneyfied, exclusion of undesirable people and activities, fairy tale portrayal. Now cameras everywhere, privatized. Trying to imitate public space in private spaces such as malls, fountains and greenery like the town square indoors.

- Defined not only as a legal status associated with the nation state

- Also participation and influence over the city's economic, social, cultural and political spheres.

- They have eluded many members of immigrant groups.

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