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- The process by which an increasing proportion of a national population lives in towns and cities.

- Split into two groups: Demographic and Socio-cultural

-Demographic involves movement, increased density, absorbtion of more area (i.e. Toronto to GTA) and lets us determine whether a place is urban.

-Socio-cultural involves asking why and how? Not where? Thinking about how spaces are used and how people can be considered urban but not live in a city.

- Importance: Urbanization is at an all time high. The majority of the world's population now lives in cities.

- Any given location can be interpreted as place to someone.

- The term place is given to a location once it receives a meaning or reason for its importance.

- For example if it evokes an emotion of happiness or sadness for an experience at that spot.

- Place is security.

- People interact with place and it tells people who we are, surrounds us with likeminded people and makes us feel safe (security).

- Places are created by human intervention, then people are influenced by these places. There is a reciprocal relationship.

- Geographic entities with distinct shapes, scales, and other properties that set the stage for certain kinds of human activities.

- As spaces are used and made meaningful by human beings, they become places.

- Both space and place can be used together (i.e. Chinatown but can be seen as an intersection or public transit space)

New urbanism
- New urbanism is a response to suburban sprawl that emphasizes on revitalizing old urban centers.

- Creating mixed-use centers where residences are located close to commercial and office sectors

- Planning for walkable, high-density, low-rise residential areas that are socially diverse communities

- Minimizing the speed of autos through urban areas and making cities more attractive to walking and casual social interaction

- Example: Garden city by ebenizer howard

- Associated with a utopian view, ideal view of society and how it should be

- Lower density development at urban fringe than in existing city.

- Automobile dependent

- Leapfrog patterns of development, minimum public open space

- Unplanned development

- Sprawl consequence of rapid urbanization

Visible homeless
People who live in public without housing. For example the people who we see in parks and washrooms
Invisible homeless
- People who are precariously housed but living in ways the public can't see them.

- We don't see them because they may be house hopping or in a shelter.

New homelessness
- Concerns the invisible homeless and how there are more invisible homeless than in the past

- Increasing amount of families, women, minorities and youth becoming invisible homeless

- Data of homelessness is skewed because data collectors will only see the visible homeless outside and the invisible homeless are often not counted.

Spacialization of difference
- The idea that certain people belong in certain places and how it is something we can feel

- When we say someone or some place is sketchy, we are saying that this person or space is different from what we are used to and it's unfamiliar

- Race is made up of spatial and material things

- It is about a discourse between representation, images, bodies and material experiences

- Small scale racializaton of space and place is considered a microgeography

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