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- The process by which an increasing proportion of a national population lives in towns and cities.

- Split into two groups: Demographic and Socio-cultural

-Demographic involves movement, increased density, absorbtion of more area (i.e. Toronto to GTA) and lets us determine whether a place is urban.

-Socio-cultural involves asking why and how? Not where? Thinking about how spaces are used and how people can be considered urban but not live in a city.

- Importance: Urbanization is at an all time high. The majority of the world's population now lives in cities.

- Place
- Any given location can be interpreted as place to someone.

- The term place is given to a location once it receives a meaning or reason for its importance.

- For example if it evokes an emotion of happiness or sadness for an experience at that spot.

- Place is security.

- People interact with place and it tells people who we are, surrounds us with likeminded people and makes us feel safe (security).

- Places are created by human intervention, then people are influenced by these places. There is a reciprocal relationship.

New urbanism
- New urbanism is a response to suburban sprawl that emphasizes on revitalizing old urban centers.

- Creating mixed-use centers where residences are located close to commercial and office sectors

- Planning for walkable, high-density, low-rise residential areas that are socially diverse communities

- Minimizing the speed of autos through urban areas and making cities more attractive to walking and casual social interaction

- Example: Garden city by ebenizer howard

- Associated with a utopian view, ideal view of society and how it should be

- Lower density development at urban fringe than in existing city.

- Automobile dependent

- Leapfrog patterns of development, minimum public open space

- Unplanned development

- Sprawl consequence of rapid urbanization

Visible homeless
- People who live in public without housing. For example the people who we see in parks and washrooms
Invisible homeless
- People who are precariously housed but living in ways the public can't see them.

- We don't see them because they may be house hopping or in a shelter.

New homelessness
- Concerns the invisible homeless and how there are more invisible homeless than in the past

- Increasing amount of families, women, minorities and youth becoming invisible homeless

- Data of homelessness is skewed because data collectors will only see the visible homeless outside and the invisible homeless are often not counted.

Spacialization of difference
- The idea that certain people belong in certain places and how it is something we can feel

- When we say someone or some place is sketchy, we are saying that this person or space is different from what we are used to and it's unfamiliar

- Race is made up of spatial and material things

- It is about a discourse between representation, images, bodies and material experiences

- Small scale racializaton of space and place is considered a microgeography

Concentric zone
- Follows The Burgess Model of a typical industrial city

- It had 5 levels:
A (Main, lowest economic standing)
B (Factories, industry, production, transitional area of residence)
C (Low class residential)
D(Medium class residential)
E(High class residential, highest economic standing)

- A is the most internal and E is the most external.


- A very large and highly dense population site connecting people and enterprises in different cities and towns.

Urban fragmentation
- The process of metropolitan areas being split up

- 2 areas exist together in a larger area which has social differences and wants to separate due to those differences

- Examples include being less wealthy and thus not being able to provide the same level of services

- The movement of industrial enterprises out of older metropolitan areas during the period after World War II.

- Manufacturing had provided the economic foundation of many of these sites, cities that grew up during the industrial age; and, as industry disappeared, so the city itself became diminished.

- This resulted in the emergence of businesses in the sunbelt region or the south, west and south west united states and a lot of people moving there.

Post industrial/Postmodern metropolis
- A postindustrial city characterized by social fragmentation.

- An example is Los Angeles

- Characterized by affluent people, disparities of wealth differences in race and religion.

- Vast system of highways which causes sprawl, more people to live in the suburbs and longer commutes for more pollution.

- Differences in social disparities and inequalities

- Police state (i.e. riots and racial profiling such as the rodney king incident in the readings)

- Suburbs are LDR, on the urban periphery, contain middle and upper middle class social homogeneity, they sprawl and are economically dependent on cities and they are exclusively residential like a bedroom community.

- Different types of suburbs are the technoburb and edge city, the auto-dependent suburb and the streetcar suburb

- In the clip we saw in class from the show weeds demonstrates suburbs as uniformity, happy and safe, affluent people, boring and everyone has the same things houses cars. But there is more to these places than people give them credit for.

Ato-dependent suburb
- Invention of the automobile most important factor for expansion of suburbs

- Emphasis on highways and contain borders with no centers

- Gridiron vs Cul-de-sacs

Cul-de-sacs are a big feature of the auto-dependent suburb.

- People driving will go through circles to get somewhere instead of in a straight line.

- This feature destroys community, creates useless space and longer travel times. Gridiron layouts allow for multi-use neighbourhoods.

Multiple nuclei
- Multiple nuclei is a layout for cities in which many different functions can be existing at one time

- For example in Los Angeles there wasn't areal reason for the population to move into the inner city.

- There is variation for where people can go to finish tasks.

The four theoretical approaches
1. Postitivism - Causal relation, scientific, laws through science, spatial analysis. tells us little of the nuances, causes and why.

2. Structuralism - Structural level, below appearance, internal logic and consistency, less quantifiable.

3. Humanism - Understanding of human agency, consciousness. Shared understanding, no verifying of falsifying. Uses focus groups, interviews to understand cities. Participatory action research (Par) Giving people a voice

4. Post modernism - Emphasis on human difference and not theory. Unlimited interpretations of situations maybe confusing. Stopping to look at the real problem.

- The process by which people and places come to be associated with race

- Geography is very important to racialization because race is locally produced through discourse and geography

- In Toronto, Non-White people are racialized and white people are not as if being white isn't a race or colour

- Example from lecture is singhdale where people and place are racialized

Doughnut city
- Prototypical layout for cities in america. Characterized by good stuff on the periphery and bad stuff at the core.
Food desert
- Areas where there is a 1 kilometer distance or more to have access to fresh food

- There are 13 food deserts in Toronto and they are the 13 priority neighbourhoods.

Urban citizenship
- A process of claiming social, political, and economic rights in the city / make and remake urban space in order to assert a sense of belonging to the city.

- Emerged as a field of research in the late 1990s

- Explore the vast domain of groups, identities and appropriation and use of urban space to articulate claims that constitutes .

Ghettos in canadian cities?
- No, there is a high degree of racial concentration but it is not necessarily associated with greater neighbourhood poverty.
Transmigrant communities
- Communities who develop and maintain economic, social, organizational, religious, and political relations across national borders.

- People can live somewhere but not embrace the country and feel they are more from somewhere else

Global cities
- The heads of the global economy, we can scale cities based on traits like money, culture, transportation, etc.

- Immigrants usually go to global cities

- Global cities are place for negotiation of cultures, knowledge and powers between immigrant social groups

Public space
- Central for democracy

- Back to ancient Greece where democracy developed

- Public space was the only way to express their wants and rights, visibility, demonstration.

Loss of public space
- Privitized space that immitates public space

- Public spaces become private spaces

- People who own the stores are white people that build for profit

- Everything you want to do in public spaces costs money

Revanchist city (an example of public space and privatization)
- The city in which powerful people take their revenge to reasserting their authority through
1. Gentrification - Renewal of run down inner city, kick poor people out and bring in rich people
2. Privatization
3. Deregulation

- Relation to movie because Giuliani is taking back the streets making them safe for the people that have money to spend. Gentre french for middle class. Another example regent park.

- Another example is Dundas Square. Racialized youth, homeless people, people who sold goods unlicensed were kicked out. It was public space but it is now regulated. Location is disneyfied, exclusion of undesirable people and activities, fairy tale portrayal. Now cameras everywhere, privatized. Trying to imitate public space in private spaces such as malls, fountains and greenery like the town square indoors.

- Modern citizenship originated with the nation’s territory

- The complex rescaling of the global economy:

New political and economic realities: post colonialism, transnational migration, globalization and expanded
capitalism have destabilized the traditional conceptions and forms of citizenship and nationhood.

- Geographic entities with distinct shapes, scales, and other properties that set the stage for certain kinds of human activities.

- As spaces are used and made meaningful by human beings, they become places.

- Both space and place can be used together (i.e. Chinatown but can be seen as an intersection or public transit space)

- Have populations of 10 million+

- The first cities to be defined as mega cities were Tokyo and New York. Later on Mexico city was added to that list.

-Started in the industrial and post-industrial cities

-Magnets for people, organizations, and economies and the fulcrum of many countries’ social and economic dynamics

-Megacities are not just cities of a large size, they are a new distinctive spatial form of social organization, economic production and political governance.

- Gridiron patterns were a success in the spread of urbanism

- Gridiron layouts allowed for multi-use neighbourhoods, a way to fix urbanism.

- Disperses traffic so makes faster travel times, eases walking so enhances community, puts an end to useless space.

*Industrial City*
- Characterized by flourishing factories where thousands of people labour.

- They employed thousands of people through their great product selling across the world.

- Many men and women could move to these industrial cities, find a job quickly, make a great living, raise a family and stay there for years on end until deindustrialization.

*Time Space compression*
- David Harvey coined the term “time–space compression” in his book "the condition of postmodernity" to refer to the way the acceleration of economic activities leads to the destruction of spatial barriers and distances.

- Massey says we need to recognize ourselves as social beings

- For example how a computer on wall street can transfer information to another computer in another part of the world and make money in seconds

- A way of life associated with urban living. People in towns and cities interact with their surroundings, the structure of urban life and the problems that come along with it.

- Involves the socio-cultural asking why and how? Not where? Thinking about how spaces are used and how people can be considered urban but not live in a city.

- Allows cyclists to cycle in the middle as if they were the car, and motorists have to accommodate to bikes

- Motorists have to take the speed of the cyclists

*Pedal Power*
- A global grass roots bike revolution that’s threatening the car and will transform the future of transportation

- It is from a documentary by the cbc that showcases the life on being a cyclist in the city, the advantages how it is faster to use to get to a destination and the disadvantage such as theft, injuries with cars of owning a bike and riding it in the city

- Bicycling is also shown as diverse and people of all races and classes ride them

*Urban Agriculture*
- An industry that produces, processes, and markets food, fuel, and other outputs, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on many types of privately and publicly held land and water bodies found throughout intra-urban and peri-urban areas

- Typically applies intensive production methods, frequently using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes, to yield a diverse array of land-, water-, and air-based fauna and flora, contributing to the food security, health, livelihood, and environment of the individual, household, and community

- Growing crops within our walls. Local supplies of fruit and vegetables are part of sustainability. to reduce the energy required to transport food from hundreds or thousands of miles away. It contributes to food security and poverty alleviation.

- Makes weaker cities stronger

*Streetcar Suburb*
- Suburbs built following the streetcar lines.

- Some examples are scarborough town center and the st clair streetcar suburb.

- Walkability is the main purpose of the streetcar suburb.

- It also facilitated shopping and the purchasing of necessities while people are on their way home from work.

*Smart Growth*
- A response to sprawl which promotes better housing and environmental quality by using mixed land use and compact building designs to create high density with lower environmental costs.

- Strategy to deal with the costly constant development on Greenfield sites on the city’s edge.

- It focuses on existing developments in order to utilize their infrastructures and to preserve open space and farmland

- Minimizes negative environmental impacts and promotes sustainability
Growth has been a dominant feature of all cities. They used to be a few square miles to hundreds of miles which we can no longer walk

*Cultural omnivores*
- We today have become cultural omnivores

- We have all kinds of food in the city

- There are many options, we have knowledge of all foods which marks distinction, we are willing to try all foods

- From a video clip in class we saw a couple with an obsession about their food. They have an intimate knowledge. They asked many questions about their food and where it was from.

Food media
- Celebrity Chefs, Cookbooks, Shows, Magazines, Star Ingredients, Gastro Porn

- Hard to decipher when fashion ends and when food begins

- Bacon as star ingredient – putting it on everything

- Giving significance to food watching a show on television

- Sustainability is about processes having a lasting effect over time

- There are three pillars to sustainability: social, economic and environmental.

- These three pillars overlap and function together in a chain

- Many materials and resources flow into the city and it is important for us to understanding how cities use resources these resources and come up with ways to manage their allocation so that we can continue living the way we want in life

*Eating the other*
- “Within commodity cuisine, ethnicity becomes spice, seasoning that can liven up the dull dish that is mainstream white culture” Bell Hooks

- Consuming the other creates connections between food consumption and identity

- Nothing can be exotic anymore because in the city we are so diverse. We want to try everything

- We don't want to leave our comfort zone so we like a little spice of ethnicity not the full thing

- For example the bento boxes and sushi bites by president's choice

The city
- The city has characteristics that define it which are size, density and heterogeneity

- Cities are not just entities, but objects.

- They are places and spaces for urbanization which are made and have actions but on them but have a reciprocal process because they shape people

- The first city based in modern day iraq between the tigris and euphrates rivers. An area of fertile land.

- Included urbanism, density, socio-cultural aspects, languages, dates and plates

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