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Alex Anatomy Quiz 1


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-2 layers ( fibrous outer layer and cellular inner layer)
-provides a route for nerves and blood vessels into bone; participates in bone growth/repair
-layer lining the marrow cavities and covering the trabeculae of spongy bone
-active in growth and repair
-composed of osteoprogenitor cells w/ interspersed osteoclasts and osteoblasts

-replacement of other tissues with bone
-2 types
intramembranous ossification
-bone replaces fibrous CT and mesenchymal CT
-results in the formation of dermal bones (flat bones close the skin; i.e mandible, clavicle, and flat bones of skull)
-normal part of fetal development but also occurs when there is a fracture

endochondrous ossification
-replaces cartilage w/ bone
-6 steps
interstitual/appositional growth
-interstitual= bones increase in length
-appositional= bones increase in diameter
Required minerals/vitamins for bone matrix
-Ca, PO4, Mg, Fe, and Mn
-Vitamin C
-Vitamin D3

-maintains homeostasis of blood calcium levels by lowering calcium when its too high
-lowers level by inhibiting osteoclasts and stimulating excretion by kidneys
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
-maintains homeostasis of blood calcium levels by increasing calcium levels
-increases level by stimulating osteoclasts; inhibits excretion by kidneys and assists calciferol with absorption
Endocrine system
-glands secrete hormones into the circulation
-hormones only effect the tissues that have receptors
-slower and longer term effects
-ex. growth, metabolism, sexual development

Nervous system
-nerves transmit electrical impulses to and from the brain
-nerves are hardwired to target tissues
-short term but immediate response
-ex. muscle movements, senses, conscious thought

neuron vs nerve
-neuron= nerve cell
-nerve= a bundle of axons from multiple neurons
-cell body of a neuron
-contains cytoplasm called perikaryon (surrounds nucleus)
-most neurons lack centrioles (means no division thus poor healing)

-extensions of the soma
-like a tree w/ many branches (dendritic spines)
-this is where info is received

-propagates electrical impulses called action potentials
-contains axoplasm
-attached to soma at axon hillock
-surrounded by plasma membrane called axolemma
-branches into telodendria

Synaptic buttons/knobs
-terminal ends of telodendria
-forms communication junction (synapse) with neurons/effector cells
-arrival of an action potential triggers the release of NTs from vesicles into synaptic cleft
-NTs bind to receptors on cell membrane of post synaptic cell
Axoplasmic transport
-not the same as action potential
-transport of proteins, NTs, etc from one end of neuron to the other via axoplasm
-uses ATP and occurs along neurotubules
-slow stream and fast stream

Anterograde vs. retrograde
-anterograde= from soma to synaptic knobs
-retrograde= from synaptic knobs to soma (less common, i.e rabies)
-normal decrease in bone mass due to decline of osteoblast activity
-severe loss of bone mass due to decrease in sex hormones
-vertebras are weakened due to osteoporosis

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