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Chapter 18 AP Psychology Vocabulary


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Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Social Facilitation
Improved performanc of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
Social Loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when indivudally accountable.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Group Polarization
The enhancement of a group\'s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action.
\"Us\", people with whom one shares a common identity.
\"Them\", those perceived as different or apart from a group.
Ingroup Bias
The tendency to favor one\'s own group.
Scapegoat Theory
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
Just-World Phenomenon
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Frustration-Aggression principle
The principle that frustration- the blocking if an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Social Trap
A situation in which conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them.
Passionate love
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate Love
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Bystander Effect
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to aid if other bystanders are present.
Social Exchange Theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Super Ordinate Goals
Shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction-- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.

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