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Phil. of Religion Midterm


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inductively valid
if the premises are true then the conclusion is likely to be true
deductively valid
if the premises are true, the conclusion must also be true
sources of evidence
observation/perception, testimony, memory, intuition
any attempt to support beliefs or actions with reasons
arguments are assessed in two ways
truth of premises and validity

an attitude a person has about the way the world is
Philosophy- literal meaning
\"love of wisdom\"
contradictions in personality
if God has human like emotions than he can be tricked, angry, confused, ect. To have human like mental states, you would not know what will happen but his is not consistent with the perfect definition of God. This means God does not exist
contradictions in omnibenevolence
if you are omnipotent you can do anything but if you are omnibenevloent you cannot do evil. the two cannot exist at once which means there is no God
the \"chuck norris\" defense
god can create a stone so heavy he can\'t lift it, and also lift it.
philosopher behind the problem of evil
philosopher behind the contradiction argument: paradox of the stone
contradiction argument: paradox of the stone
God can either create a stone that he can\'t lift or he cannot create it. in either sense, there is something he cannot do. This would make him not omnipotent. God is omnipotent so God does not exist
Plantigna\'s \"free will defense\"
Free will is greater than suffering. Free beings create suffering. if God exists he would want to create a world with free will which in turn would bring about suffering.
contradiction argument: paradox of the stone

Problem of Evil argument
God is all perfect(all knowing, powerful, and good). So God knows of suffering and evil and has the potential to stop and prevent any suffering. if god exists than suffering cannot. and since suffering exists, God does not
design argument: inductive to the universe
the universe has just the right conditions for life to exist. Likelihood principle leans more towards intelligent design over mindless chance.
it is likely there is an intelligent designer: God

objection to the design argument
evolutionary theory
design argument: inductive
Things which lack natural intelligence act for an end. This can either happen through mindless chance or intelligent design. Likelihood principle that intelligent design is more likely than mindless chance.
There must be an intelligent designer: God

design argument: deductive
things which lack natural intelligence act for an end and if it lacks intelligence it must only pursue that end by the guidance of a designer.
So there must be an intelligent designer: God

The design argument\'s different versions
Deductive (aquinas), inductive (paley), Inductive applied to the universe
cosmological argument
First mover- this first mover is who we understand to be God
The claim that we do not now, or possibly ever, have sufficient evidence to evaluate the claim that God does or does not exist
The claim that there does not exist any entity with all of the qualities of God
the claim that there does exist an entity with all of the qualities of God
positions in religion (belief)

definition of God
Creator of the universe and everything in it
\"perfect\" - all knowing, powerful, good, present.
\"personal\" qualities

Philosopher behind the design argument
philosopher behind the cosmological argument
two kinds of agnosticism
TAP - temporary agnosticism in practice (has the possibility to be proven)

PAP - permanent agnosticism in principle (all attempts to prove x have failed and the future will be like the past so no proof of x is possible.)

God is in which kind of agnosticism
A priori
can know before experience (ontological)
A presterori
need to go out and observe or experience something (cosmological, design)
Objection to the cosmological argument
why can\'t it go on to infinity?
reject the old idea of what motion is

reply to the objection of infinity in cosmological argument is ____
Philosopher behind the deductive version of the design argument
philosopher behind the ontological argument
The ontological argument
if god only exists in the mind then we can think of something better than god (him existing in the world) therefore god must exist in the world because nothing better can be thought than god.
Objections to the ontological argument
why is it better to exist in the mind than in the world?
what if someone doesn\'t have the concept of god in their mind?
Kant\'s look on existence (ontological)
existence is not a property
philosopher behind the practical argument
Practical argument
your expected winnings for believing in god is much greater than not believing. If you do not believe in god your losses are much greater than not believing. so it is rational to believe in god
to calculate probabilities
number of possibilities divided by the number of favorable outcomes
objections to the practical argument
doesn\'t prove the existence of god.
can\'t force belief
many gods are possible
could you avoid wagering?

Philosophers behind the moral argument
adams (DCT) and kant (moral order)
divine command theory
an action is required or forbidden if god commands it.

The moral argument (DCT)
god is the best explanation for moral properties
moral properties exist so god must exist
objections to the moral argument
why is god the best explanation?
what if god is just the middle man?

Moral Order version of the Moral argument
right and wrong come rom rationality but god is required to reward and punish people. we get rewards and punishments so there must be a god
what is moral is loved by the gods and what is immoral is hated by the gods
objections to the problem of evil argument
maybe god can exist with suffering?
deny that god is all perfect
deny that an all perfect god is inconsistent with the existence of evil

any attempt to show how the divine attributes of God could be compatible with the existence of evil
EX Free will defense
evidential version of the problem of evil
god cannot exist when there are large amouns of unnecessary suffering so god does not exist.
Free will defense philosopher
objections to the free will defense
why is free will so great?
can can\'t god force free beings to not cause suffering?
Natural disasters

when someting is p and not p at the same time
philosopher behind the contradictions argument
redefining all-powerful
Maximum power or the most powerful
Improbability argument philosopher
absence of evidence philosopher
Improbability argument
the ultimate 747
god is complex and improbable and he cannot just exist. he must have a designer
objections to the improbability argument
how do we know god is complex and improbable?
natural selection
very circular

false predictions argument
the only evidence we have is historical. we cannot trust the bible because it says things that we have proven inconsistent with our best knowledge therefore god does not exist
objections to the false predictions argument
argument more for agnosticism
maybe the bible can be true about certain things and false about others
absence of evidence argument
there is no good evidence for god
evidence of god has a low prior likelihood so it is likely that god does not exist
absence of evidence involves..
objections to the absence of evidence argument
argument for agnosticism
why is there a low prior-likelihood for the existence of God?

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