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B Cells & Antibodies


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What is another name for the complement system?
A poor man\'s antibodies

Complement fragments act as what, to recruit what?
They act as chemoattractants to help recruit phagocytic cells to the site of infection.
Where are complement proteins found?
They are present in the blood and tissues.
Where are the proteins that make up the complement system produced?
The liver
What is the name of the most abundant complement protein?
How many proteins compose the compliment system?
When do complement proteins start to be made in humans?
During the first trimester of fetal development
Name the three ways the complement system can be activated
The classical pathway(antibody dependent), alternative activation(antibody independent) and the lectin activation pathway(MBL binds to MASP)
How does the alternative pathway work?
C3b binds to an amino or hydroxyl group on the invader
How does the lectin activation pathway work?
Monnose binding lectin attaches to carbohydrate molecules that make up the cell walls of pathogens.
Name the professional phagocytes:
Macrophages and neutrophils

What activates macrophages?
What cell sends signals to activate macrophages?
Natural Killer Cells
Name the three keys to the complement system
Phagocytes, NK cells and the complement proteins.
What is the innate system?
The natural system
What is the complement system?
The adaptive system
B cells are born in the ____.
Bone marrow

one million B cells are made everyday
False, it\'s one billion.
BCR stands for
B Cell Receptors
The two kinds of proteins that make up the BCR\'s are ________.
Heavy chain and Light Chain
Where are the gene segments that will be chosen to make up the final Hc gene located
On chromosome 14
B cell has only one 14 chromosome.
False, it has two, one from mom and one from dad.
B cells make only one kind of antibody.

How many V segments are there in chromosome 15?
None, but there are 50 in chromosome 14.
There are 20 D segments in chromosome 14

How many J segments are there in C14?
Around 6

How many C segments are there in C14?
Around 10

How are the gene segments joined together?
By deleting DNA sequences in between them.
When does protein translation stop?
When the ribosome encounters one of the three codons.
What is the statistic to make a winning combination of genes?
1 in 9
Define productive rearangement
This is when the the winning chromosome creates the right gene combination, then the HC protein is made and transported to the cell surface where it signals game over to the losing chromosome.
When both 14 chromosome\'s fail to create the HC, they get another try?
False, the cell dies because it cannot express a receptor.
What is the second test the HC must pass?
It must fit properly with the LC
What happens when the HC and LC don\'t match up?
B cell commits suicide.
How do BCR\'s recognize foreign antigens?
Cognate antigen
The area that the cognate antigen of the BCR bind to is:
What happens when the BCR\'s recognize the epitote it is matched?
It signals the recognition the the nucleus where the gene for activating the B cell is turned on or off.
How do BCR\'s send signals to the nucleus?
Ig-gamma and Ig-alpha proteins inside the cell.
How do BCR\'s generate a signal?
They create a cluster.
What are gene\'s made out of?
Gene segments
Neutrophils one job is?
To kill the pathogen
How do Neutrophills exit blood vessels?
Using cellular adhesion molecules
When do Neutrophils become activated?
When they exit blood vessels at the sites of inflammation
CTL\'s job is
To kill virus-infected cells
Helper T Cells do what?
They secrete cytokines that affect the function of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems.
The innate system is program to_________________.
react to danger signals
After B cells are born in the bone marrow what\'s the next step?
They are descended from stem cells.
Define gene rearrangement
It\'s when the constant regions for IgM and IgD are used to make the BCR.
How does the winning HC protein send a signal to the losing HC protein?
How do Ig-gamma and Ig-Beta signal molecules inside the B cell?
They interact with enzymes inside the cell
Why do BCR\'s cluster?
So that the IgG and IgB molecules have a strong signal to the nucleus.
What does the BCR do?
It recognizes a specific epitope on the antigen
How much stronger is the complement receptor compared to the BCR?
100 times
The name of the BCR\'s co receptor is__________.
The complement receptor
Which system decides if an invader is dangerous?
The Innate System
Which cell releases signals to activate the B cell?
Helper T Cell
Name the two steps the B-cell must take to be activated?
Cross linking and Co stimulatory

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