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Chapter 9 Vocabulary PT 1


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The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Flashbulb Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
The processing of information into the memory system-- for example, by extracting meaning.
The retention of encoded information over time.
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory Memory
The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgoteen.
Long-term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
Visual Encoding
The encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially words.
Semantic Encoding
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organization devices.
Organizing units into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Iconic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

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