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Roman Republic Final


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M. Porcius Cato (the Censor)
(180-149)Born into a moderately wealthy Sabine family as a Roman citizen Cato was born at an opportune time when Rome was increasing its global dominance after the 2nd Punic war.
Cato held many offices including Tribune, Praetor, and Censor and was thought to be the voice of conservative political thought. He saw the Greeks to be overindulgent and believed that the traditional Roman simplicity was superior. This belief led into a clash with Scipio Africanus, who admired the Greek lifestyle.
Cato was noted for his extreme hatred for Carthage. His motto in the senate became “Cathago Delenda Est,” which equates to “destroy Carthage.”

Attalus of Pergamum
170-133 BC, Last Attalid King of Pergamum (r. 138-133) Not really interested in ruling Pergamum and instead studied medicine and botany. After he died he left the kingdom of Pergamum to the Roman Republic.
P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus
185-129 BC, also known as Africanus the younger, he lead the destruction of Carthage in 146, and lead the senatorial opposition to the Gracchi brothers reforms in 133. Adopted grandson of Scipio Africanus. Openly disliked the brother’s reform, and died mysteriously one morning. it is unknown, but expected that he was assassinated.
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
133, gets credited with the “Gracchus Revolution”. He was of high status and from a respectable blood line. His mom, Cornelia, was the daughter of Scipio Africanus. He became tribune in 133 and finally brought about change to the Republic. He wanted a land reformation that would distribute public land to the landless (20acres each), but it was an uproar when he attempted to pass this proposal. He ran for tribune for a second year, but there were riots and violence. Tiberius and 300 of his followers were killed and dumped in the Tiber River. The remaining of his supporters left Rome out of fear.
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus
Tiberius’ younger brother. The change he sought were a better pay for the army, court reform, land distribution, and encouraged class warfare. Tried to extend citizenship, lost most of following, he and 3000 of his followers were killed, tribune in 123
190-100BC. 2nd daughter of Scipio Africanus, hero of the 2nd punic war. she was the perfect roman woman, chaste, noble. Mother of the Graccus brothers, involved in their political careers.
Gaius Laelius
145, Laelius was a praetor who worked with Scipio’s faction in the Senate. He wanted to prose a law to redistribute land in Rome and divide up the ager publicas. Word spread about his plans, and when he backed out of the proposal, the Senate called Laelius a Sapiens (wise man). The aristocracy wanted nothing to change their voice and they rewarded people who kept things the same, despite Rome being in desperate need of land and military reforms.
Appius Claudius Pulcher
97 to 49 BC, Consul in 54, and elected Censor in 50. Father-in-Law of Tiberius Gracchus and one of the overseers of Tiberius Agrarian Reform bill once it was in place
M. Octavius
133 BC. Good orator who opposed Gracchi reforms.
Scipio Nasica
While the Pontifex Maximus, Nasica led a riot-like move to kill Tiberius Gracchus and 300 of his followers. Nasica then dumped the bodies in the Tiber River and saw this action as a sacrifice for the state.
M. Fulvius Flaccus
Elected consul in 125 BC. He wanted to propose law that would make allies Roman CItizens. He was part of the Claudian Gen so all the allies would be clients of the Claudians. He was given a special command in Gaul instead and he never proposed it. Gaius Gracchus’ buddy, there when Gaius and his 3000 were on Apentine Hill before they got massacred
M. Livius Drusus
Elected Tribune in 91 BC. He realized that change had to happen for the benefit of the state. Deflated coinage, dropped grain prices, reformed extortion courts with provincial governors, wanted Italians to be members of Senate. Rumored that he would propose citizenship for allies, but opposition from all sides. Assassinated in 91 BC.
C. Marius
157-86, was born in the mountains South of Rome (was a citizen). He was from the Equestrian class and very skilled in the military. At 34 years old, he ran for questor. Four years later he became Tribune. As tribune, Marius implemented the secret ballot, which the aristocrats did not want because they would lose control. In 116, Marius was elected Praetor and went on to win the consulship in 107. He was a proconsul in 106 and 105 and was consul from 104-100. The Senate did not approve of Marius and took away his army to make him ineffective. He was incredibly good at training soldiers and his impact on Roman war was top notch against anyone. He took good care of his army, and as result the soldiers showed their loyalty to Marius rather than the state. Although the Senate disliked Marius, they trusted him as a military leader and called on him during emergency situations. When Marius got involved in politics, he ran with a sketchy crowd and eventually had to flee Rome when things got out of control. They later asked him to return for help with the military, and Marius wanted to take on Mithradates.
Q. Caecilius Metellus
160-91 BC Had command in Africa at the time of the War with Jugurtha (111-105 BC). Marius was one of his deputies. When Marius was consul, he proposed that Metellus be relieved of his command in Africa.
Was the illegitimate child of the Kind of Numidia in Africa. He became an enemy of Marius. Jugurtha became kind of Numidia after killing and scaring his half-brothers. The Romans wanted to put an end to Jugurtha, and he in turn started killing Romans in Numidia, which started the Jugurthan War from 111-105. He frustrated the Romans by stalling and dragging on without resolution. Once Marius raised a personal army, Jugurtha was taken captive by 105 and was executed in Rome, making Marius a hero.
L. Appuleius Saturninus
was a Roman popularist and tribune; he was a political ally of Gaius marius and his downfall caused a great deal of political embarrassment for Marius, who absented himself from public life until he returned to take up a command in the Social War of 91 to 88 BC.
Mithridates of Pontus
134-63 BC, legitimate King of Pontus in Northern Turkey. Started a war to expand his interests while Rome was preoccupied with Social War (90-88 BC). He expanded into his neighbors, which they welcomed because they were not happy under Roman rule. Sulla went to fight him after the Social War. Sulla had 120K while Mith.. had only 40K. Sulla beats Mith. in battle, then has peace talks with him, establishing that Mithridates is the King of Pontus and an Ally of the Romans, but his fleet was taken away and he had to pay war emnity.
P. Rutilius Rufus
Was the governor of the province of Asia, where there was a large amount of trade and wealth. Rufus was an honest governor, but when he returned to Rome, the court led by the Equestrians convicted him.
Cinna and Octavius were elected consuls 89 BC. They were supposed to make sure that the laws that Sulla wanted would get passed, but Cinna was a bit of an unknown factor. Cinna was more a supporter of the popularei while Octavius was a supporter of Sulla. Octavious had Cinna declared an outlaw, Cinna put together an army and seiged Rome. (87 BC) Octavius had to surrender after 6 months and was executed. Later Cinna brought Carbo in to share consulship and took advantage of Sulla’s absence. Cinna later assassinated. People must choose between Carbo and Sulla.
M. Licinius Crassus
115-53, the richest man in Rome from banking, tax collecting, business endeavors, etc.
Gn. Pompeius Magnus
106-48- • Also called Pompey the Great
• His big claim to fame was at age 23 when he brought his army to Sulla against Mithradates in 84
• His background: father was a power player but a popular politician (was in Cinna’s army), but Pompey decided to side with Sulla
• After 82 with Sulla coming out on top, Pompey went to the North to get things under control. Sulla liked Pompey so much that he married his step-daughter to him, giving Pompey a higher place in society.
• Pompey was then sent off to Africa. He got involved in the problems in Numidia, which was not dependent on Rome, but there were still problems with the succession. Pompey was involved in establishing a client king in his control
• Pompey was establishing fan bases and loyalty all around the Republic, despite his complete lack of political experience, has never held a position. Sulla began getting nervous and told Pompey to come home with the situation in Africa looking good.

126-73BCE military genius, caepio, battle of arausio, marius, spy, battle of aquae sextae, tribune is hispania
109 to 71BC, was enslaved with his wife (how sad), In 73, he along with 70 to 80 other slaves escapes their holders, and Spartacus emerged as the leader of a slave rebellion
parthian general, 10k of archers and cavalry, overthrew mithradites III, and defeated licinius, he was popular with the people and nobles got jealous and assasinated him
L. Licinius Lucullus
117-56 BC, Given command in another war with Mithridates but didn’t have enough troops. When Lucullus couldn’t finish of Mith., Pompey had himself replace him. Lucullus was humiliated and devoted the rest of his life to undermining Pompey. Later, during the Triumvirate, Lucullus would give Pompey trouble with legislation, and was eventually dismissed.
M. Tullius Cicero
106-43 – Cicero was a plebeian and after serving his military duty, he studied with the best possible teachers. In 70, he was hired by Sicily to prosecute their governor Verres, who was the worst and most corrupt governor people had ever seen. Cicero prepared an amazing case, which scared Verres off. Since he couldn’t show off his research, Cicero published the case to spotlight his brilliance. He suggested the Concordia Ordinem to finally settle everything in the state, and he went on to win the consulship in 63. Cicero heard of a plot by L. Sergius Catilina against the state, and Cicero swung into action by discussing the plot and details to the Senate right in front of Catiline, who fled Rome.
L. Sergius Catalina (Cataline)
enemy of Cicero who plotted against the state and had a list of people he wanted assassinated. He fled Rome, but his fellow conspirors were executed by the encouragement of Cicero.
M. Portius Cato (The Younger)
95-46 BC, Opponent of Caesar’s in Senate. Was culturally conservative, belonged to the senatorial class though he was humble and avoided luxuries. Thought that Caesar would destroy the Republic. Sent to deal with Cyprus when Caesar came back to Rome after Crassus died.
Leader of the collection of Gallic tribes that fought against Caesar at Aedui in Southwestern Gaul in the Winter of 52. Eventually surrendered and was killed and decapitated.
M. Junius Brutus
A senator and praeter, best known for his role in the assassination of Jullius Caesar “Et tu Brute,” translated into “And you Brutus” as noted to be said by Caesar during the attack. “Kai su, Teknon” - “You too, kid?”, Caesar had an affair with his mother for many years
P. Clodius Pulcher (Clodius)
93-52 BC Supporter of Caesar, really shady character, basically a gang leader. Had an affair with Caesar’s wife. Supported Caesar in the Tribal Assembly and got rid of Caesar’s opponents. Was eventually killed by Pompey’s own gang leader Milo.
Bona Dea
"The Good Goddess" was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in women, healing, and the protection of the Roman state and people. Bona Dea's cults in the city of Rome were led by the Vestal Virgins. Her temple’s location connects her to Rome's plebeian commoner class, whose tribunes and emergent aristocracy resisted patrician claims to rightful religious and political dominance. Celebration celebrated yearly, Clodius snuck in and hid in the Corner, Caesar’s wife,____, went to talk to him and he was found out, led to rumors that he and Caesar’s wife were having an affair, Caesar divorces his wife, “Caesar’s wife should be without suspision”
M. Bibulus
d. 48 BC, Fellow consul to Caesar 59 BC. He stopped Caesar’s legislation for Pompey’s veterans. Got beat up because of it and the rest of the year basically stayed in his house and stopped participating.
M. Antonius (Antony)
83-30 BC, Supporter of Caesar, Tribune in 50 BC and defended Caesar’s cause to Tribal Assembly and also supports him during the Civil War. After Caesar was killed (44BC) Antony elected consul. Marc Antony shares leadership of Republic with Caesar’s heir Octavian. Split empire between them, Antony got East. Also had affair with Cleopatra, had two children and let her rule the Eastern part through him. Battled Octavian and lost because he followed Cleopatra’s ship back to Egypt. He then committed suicide.
Ptolemy XIII
Brother and husband of Queen Cleopatra of Egypt, and in year 50 ruled alongside her. Defeated Roman general Pompey the Great came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive, Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated her marriage to Ptolemy XIII.
Cleopatra VII
Killed herself with an Egyptian adler, she would have otherwise been taken back to rome for embarrassing victory parade, had son with Caesar, 3 kids with Marc Antony, fleet sailed with Marc Antony’s at battle of Actium which ended civil war between Octavius/Augustus and Marc Antony
G. Octavius (Octavian, Augustus, G. Julius Caesar Octavianus)
Julius Caesar’s Heir, emphasizing name. nephew of Caesar. octavius took the the west and antony took the east. Still lots of resistance in the west. Antony was also placing obstacles in the west, while profiting in the east, based out of turkey. Cleopatra shows up in 42 in turkey to meet antony. Asked to resign, senate said no, then apointed him Augustus, ending the republic, and giving rise to the roman empire. Augustus’ future actions undercut the senate. He only appointed military leaders who owed their position to him and him alone. All the various loyalties of others leaders, such as marc antony, were now gone. The military swore a direct oath to agustus. he directly paid the wages. Triumphs only celebrated for his family. Senate cannot do anything without 1st citizen. Republic looks the same, but the spirit is gone. Pompey tried to reach the level of power where no army is required, but agustus is able to style himself after this, and then actually have the military angle

M. Lepidus
89-12 BC, Part of the 2nd triumvirate with Octavian and Marc Antony. Got some territory in Spain and Africa to rule.
40 BC. marc antony’s new wife, given by octavius to settle the treaty. after antony lost the battle with persia, he left octavia in greece to go back to egypt to see cleopatra.
Battle of Aurausio
October 105 in Southwestern Gaul (Modern France), Roman Consuls were Quintus Caepio and Mallius Maximus. However, bitter differences between the commanders prevented the Roman armies from cooperating, with devastating results. The terrible defeat gave Gaius Marius the opportunity to come to the fore and radically reform the organization and recruitment of Roman legions. Roman losses are described as being up to 80,000 troops, as well as another 40,000 auxiliary troops (allies) and servants and camp followers — virtually all of their participants in the battle.
The defeat left them with a critical shortage of manpower but also with a terrifying enemy camped on the other side of the now-undefended Alpine passes. In Rome, it was widely thought that the defeat was due to the arrogance of Caepio rather than to a deficiency in the Roman Army, and popular dissatisfaction with the ruling classes grew.
As it turned out, the Cimbri next clashed with the Averni tribe, and after a hard struggle set out for the Pyrenees instead of immediately marching into Italy. This gave the Romans time to re-organise and elect the man who would become known as the savior of Rome, Gaius Marius.

Battle of Aquae Sextiae
102, Marius only had an army of 40k, but killed 90k of the Teutones (a Germanic tribe that had been invading Roman territory), basically wiping them out.
52 BC Part of Caesar’s campaign in Gaul against Vercingetorix. Caesar had cornered the Gauls in the town of Alesia and built two walls around the city so they couldn’t get out. Vercingertorix didn’t have enough supplies in the city to feed everyone so they threw everyone out that couldn’t fight and they starved in the space between the city walls and the Roman walls. The Gauls were not very organized and only were able to coordinate sporatic heavy attacks on the barricades that didn’t really do anything. They finally found a weak spot in the barricade one day and got through, but the Romans were able to drive them back. The next day Vercingetorix surrendered and was strangled, but Caesar treated his people well and didn’t make them slaves.
Battle of Pharsalus
a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Victory for Caesar, Pompey fled to Egypt
Cimbri and Teutones
German tribes, probably from Denmark, who migrated to Roman territory most likely for population issues. They were annihilated by Marius’ army, and after the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102, there was a mass suicide of Teutone women and children who thought death was better than being Roman slaves.
War with Mithradates
There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus; named for Mithridates VI who was King of Pontus at the time.
● First Mithridatic War (88 to 84 BC). Roman legions commanded by Lucius Cornelius Sulla as well as Lucius Valerius Flaccus and Gaius Flavius Fimbria. Significant battles included the Battle of Chaeronea and the Battle of Orchomenus in 86 BC. The war ended with a Roman victory, and the Treaty of Dardanos in 85 BC.
● Second Mithridatic War (83 to 81 BC). Roman armies commanded by Lucius Licinius Murena. The war ended inconclusively after a Roman defeat, and withdrawal on Sulla's orders.
● Third Mithridatic War (75 to 63 BC). Roman armies led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus (75 to 66 BC) then by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (66 to 63 BC). War ended with Roman victory and subsequent suicide of Mithridates VI in 63 BC.

Social War
Rome vs. Italian allies. At the start, the Italians had the best commanders, but they were outnumbered by Romans who eventually took advantage of their size.
War with Sertorius - Sertorian War
80 BC to 72 BC was a conflict of the Roman civil wars in which a coalition of Iberians and Romans fought against the representatives of the regime established by Sulla. It takes its name from Quintus Sertorius the main leader of the opposition to Sulla. The war is notable for Sertorius' successful use of guerrilla warfare. The war ended after Sertorius was assassinated by Marcus Perperna who was then promptly defeated by Pompey.
Lex Gabinia
BC, gave Pompey extraordinary command over the pirates. Maius imperium.
Lex Manilia
Roman law established in 66 BC. The proposal of the law was supported by Cicero in his De Imperio Cn. Pompei speech, as an attempt to gain the notice of the influential Pompey.
Instituted by the Tribune Gaius Manilius one year after the passage of the Lex Gabinia, it gave Pompey supreme command in the war against Mithridates, and the command against Mithridates was taken from Lucullus.
The law was granted at a key point in Pompey's career, after his enormous success against the pirates in the Mediterranean. The transfer of command from Lucullus to Pompey angered the aristocracy, who, as with the Lex Gabinia, felt threatened by Pompey's increasing power. Many members of the aristocracy were also angered over the humiliation of Lucullus, and viewed Pompey with envy and suspicion.

imperium maius
man with imperium had in principle absolute authority to apply the law within the scope of his magistracy, but could be vetoed or overruled by a magistrate or promagistrate having imperium maius (a higher degree of imperium). I.E.: Pompey's famous command against the pirates outranked all other owners of imperium. Imperium maius later became a hallmark of the Roman emperor.
First Triumverate
political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. First Triumvirate had no official status whatsoever; its overwhelming power in the Roman Republic was strictly unofficial influence, and was in fact kept secret for some time. 59 BC-53 BC (Crassus death)
Celtic tribe originally from modern Switzerland region. After years of being raided by other Germanic tribes, the Helvetii decided to move west into Gaul’s Aquitania, but had to march through Roman territory to do so. Caesar opposed the idea and hastily recruited two more fresh legions in preparation. In all, nearly 260,000 people including a great many women and children were reportedly killed. While today this may seem an atrocity, to the Roman people these Helvetii, seemingly mistaken for Germanics, were considered the barbaric enemy deserving of no better fate.
Lex Vatinia
A Roman law enacted March 1, 59 B.C., by tribune P. Vatinius, gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years
P. Crassus
Killed in 53 in battle alongside his father against surena and parthia. married cornelia, who remarried to pompey the great after crassus’s death
C. Cassius Longinus
one of the principal conspirators against Julius Caesar. He sought to amass an army. 43 BC his army boasted nearly twelve legions. He was able to stave off Antony's general Dolabella, secured his base in Syria, and begin preparations for an invasion of Egypt. Cassius' halted his impending invasion of Egypt and moved west to meet up with Brutus. Took joint action against the triumvirs, and began by attacking. Cassius' army was routed by Antony. Unaware of his partner's success, Cassius thought the entire cause was lost,
70 to 8, Influential member of the Equestrian class, advisor to Caesar Augustus, a poet.
Battle of Colline Gate
fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals. closing out the civil war the battle signaled the end of the ambitions of the socii, so ending the Social War.
(66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Romans. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 719 years of Roman–Persian Wars. he Parthians actively supported Brutus and Cassius, during civil war
Battle of Carhae
fought in 53 BC between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic. Crassus enticed by the prospect of military glory and riches and decided to invade Parthia without the official consent of the Senate. Despite being heavily outnumbered, Surena's cavalry completely outmaneuvered the Romans. Crassus himself was killed when truce negotiations turned violent. His death led to the end of the First Triumvirate and the resulting civil wars
Rubicon River
49 BC. the river that Caesar famously crossed, violating law, and automatically declaring civil war. he was not allowed to leave his province with an army. Marked the boundary between roman and cis-alpian gaul

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