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Vet Sx


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What are the two sources for microorganisms to contaminate a wound?
- exogenous
- endogenous
What is sterilization?
- the destruction of all microorganisms on an item
What is disinfection?
- the destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects
What is antisepsis?
- destruction of most pathogenic microrganisms on animate objects
What are the methods of sterilization
- steam
- plasma
- ionizing radiation

What are the clean areas located in the surgical ward?
- OR
- scrub sink
- sterile supply room

What are the mixed contaminated areas of a surgical suit?
- hallway
- nurses station
- instrument and supply processing areas
- storage areas
- utility rooms

What are the contaminated areas of a surgical suit?
- anaesthesia
- surgical prep room
- dressing room
- lounges
- offices

What does cleaning a wound refer to?
- removal of soil
What does disinfecting a wound refer to?
- treatment of surfaces, materials, and equipment with chemicals to reduce bacterial numbers
What does BUN on blood work refer to?
- blood urea nitrogen
What does high BUN mean?
- prerenal disease
- post renal disease
- primary renal disease

What does a low BUN refer to?
- hepatic insufficiency
- severe pu pd
What is ALT in blood work?
- alanine aminotransferase
What does a high ALT mean?
hepatic disease
- is not really diagnostic for a particular disease
- severe muscle disease can cause only minor increases in ALT

What does low albumin mean?
- hepatic disease
- loss from kidney or GIT
- lack of nutrition

What is SAP?
serum alkaline phosphatase
What does high SAP mean?
- hepatic diseases
- steroid therapy
- extrahepatic biliary obstruction
- some neoplasms

What does high bilirubin mean?
- hepatocellular disease
- extrahepatic obstruction
- intrahepatic cholestasis
- hemolitic anemia
- severe sepsis

What does high calcium mean?
- paraneoplastic syndrome
- primary hyperparathyroidism
- rodenticides
- hypervitaminosis D
- hypoadrenocorticism
- granulomatous dieases
- chronic renal failure

What does low calcium mean?
- renal disease
- eclampsia
- hypovitaminosis D
- hypoparathyroidism

What does high phosphorus mean?
- renal failure
What does low phosphorus mean?
- refeeding syndrome,
- excessive insulin
What does high creatinine mean?
- renal disease
- uroabdomen
- muscle trauma (minor elevations)

What does high glucose mean?
diabetes mellitus
What does low glucose mean?
- hepatic diease
- insulinoma
- hypoadrenocorticism
- extrahepatic neoplasms
- starvation

What does high sodium mean?
- vomiting
- diarrhea
- renal failure
- diabetes insipidus
- inappropriate fluid therapy
- adispsia

What does high potassium mean?
- hypoadrenocorticism
- severe renal failure
- uroabdomen
- some drugs

What does high total CO2 mean?
- metabolic alkalosis
- vomiting gastric contents
- excessive diuretic admin
- sodium bicarbonate admin
- inapprorate fluid therapy
- respiratory acidosis (rare)

what does low total CO2 mean?
- metabolic acidosis
What does high eosinophils mean?
parasitism, mast cell tumor
- hypersensitivities
What does high basophils mean?
- parasitism
- mast cell tumors
What does high lymphocytes mean?
- lymphosarcoma,
- feline leukemia
- some dogs with ehrlichiosis

What does low lymphocytes mean?
severe stress
- lymphangiectasia
- chylothorax
- viral disease

What does high RBC mean?
- dehydration
- polycythemia
- hypoxia

What is the criteria for an excellent prognosis?
- potential for complications is minimal
- high prop that the patient returns to normal
What are the criteria for a good prognosis?
- some potential for complications
- high prob for good outcome
What are the criteria for a fair prognosis?
- serious complications are possible but uncommon
- recovery may be prolonged
- animal may not return to presurgical function

What is the criteria for a poor prognosis?
- underlying disease with severe complication
- recover is prolonged
- likelihood of death during or after procedure is high
- animal is unlikely to return to presurgical function

What is the criteria for a guarded prognosis?
- outcome is unknown or uncertain
What are the clinical signs of hypoxia?
- tachypnea
- postural changes
- anxiety
- depression of the central nervous system

What is the normal blood volume of a dog?
What is the normal blood volume of a cat?
What are some indications that a hypertonic saline solution should be used?
- reducing total fluid requirments
- limiting edema
- increasing cardiac output

What are crystallooid solutions?
- solutions contain electrolyte and non electrolyte solutes capable of entering all body fluid comparments
What is hypertonic saline good for?
- 7%
- restoration of intravascular volume in patients with severe hypovolemic shock or head trauma
What are colloid solutions?
- large molecular weigh substances that are restricted to the plasma compartment because of their size
What are colloid solutions good for?
- shock
- severely hypoalbuminemic
- for rapid volume expansion with low volume administration as compared with crystalloids

What does whole blood contain?
- rbc
- clotting factors
- proteins

What is packed red cells?
- this rbc with a small amount of plasma
- there are no clotting factors or platelets
What is cryoprecipitate?
- a concentrated source of von willebrand's factor, factor XIII and VIII, with fibrinogen
How many blood types are there in dogs?
- 6
Dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA)
- DEA 1.1
- DEA 1.2
- DEA 3
- DEA 4
- DEA 5
- DEA 7

How many blood types are found in cats?

What is the most common blood type found in cats in the US?
How much blood will a blood soaked syringe contain?
- 5 to 10 ml of blood
How much blood will a laparotomy sponge contain?
- up to 50 ml of blood
What are the resident canine flora?
- staphylococcus epidermidis
- corynebacterium
- pityrosporum
- s. aureus
- staphylococcus intermedius
- e. coli
- streptococcus
- enterobacter
- clostridium spp

What is antiseptic?
a product with antimicrobial acitivity that formerly may have been referred to as an antimicrobial agent
What is an antiseptic agent?
an agent capable of producing antisepsis
What are some common scrubbing solutions?
- iodophors
- chlorhexidine
- alchols
- hexachloropene
- quaternary ammonium salts

What are the requirments for antimicrobial soaps or detergents used for scrubbing?
- rapid acting
- broad spectrum
- nonirritating
- inhibit rapid rebound of microbial growth

What are curved scissors used for?
- greater maneuverability and visibility
What are straight scissor used for?
- used for providing the reatest mechanical advantage when cutting tough or thick tissue
What are metzenbaum scissors used for?
- delicate tissue and blunt dissection
What are Mayo scissor used for?
cutting heavy tissue and fascia
What are suture scissors used for?
- cutting sutures
What is the difference between a hemotstat and needle holders?
needle holders have a diamond surface
What is the difference between mayo hegar needle holder and olsen hegar needle holders?
olsen hegar needle holders have scissor blades
What are tissue forceps used for?
- stabilizing tissue and expose tissue layers during suturing
What is a clean surgical wound classification?
- non taumatic, elective would closed by primary intention healing
- no inflammation
- no break in aseptic technique
- resp, uro, and alimentary tracts not entered

What is a clean contaminated surgical wound?
- non traumatic, elective would closed by primary intention healing
- alimentary, uro or resp tracts are opened with control to preven contamination
- minor break in asepsis
- otherwise clean surgery in which a drain is placed

What is a contaminated surgical would classification?
- fresh traumatic wound
- major break in asepsis
- spillage from GIT
- infected urogenital or biliary tract entered

What is a dirty surgical would classification contain?
- perforated viscus or fecal contamination
- traumatic wound with devitalised tissue
- purulent dischagre
- wounds with a foreign body

What are Halsted's principles of surgery?
1. aseptic techniques
2. sharp anatomic dissection
3. gentle tissue handling
4. careful hemostasis
5. avoid tension
6. obliteration of dead space

What are the importance of halsted's principles?
- reuce dehiscence
-rapid wound healing
- prevention infection

What does the suffix rrhage mean?
bursting forth

Waht does the suffix rrhoea mean?

What does the suffix sclerosis mean?
Waht does the suffix stenosis mean?

What does the suffix algia mean?
What does the suffix dynia mean?
What does the suffix coele mean?
What does the suffix plegia mean
What does the suffix ectasia mean?
What does the suffix ptosis mean?
What does the suffix ptysis mean?
What does the suffix malacia mean?
What does the suffix centesis mean?
punctre to remove
What does the suffix desis mean

What does the suffix ectomy mean
What does the suffix stasis mean?
stopping or contolling
What does the suffix stomy mean?
new opening
What does the suffix otomy mean?
process of cutting into
What does the suffix plasty mean?
reshaping or reconstructing
What does the suffix pexy mean?
fixation in one place
What does the suffix rrhaphy mean?
join by suture
What does the suffix plication mean?
plaiting or folding of a structure onto itself

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