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gerund & infintive - usage


undefined, object
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gerund. subj
Swimming is good for health.

Swimming keeps you fit.

Cycling is a popular form of exercise.

gerund. obj
She is busy cooking.

We wasted a lot of time trying to find a parking space.

He avoided answering my question.

gerund. after preposition
He was found guilty of lying in court.

He left without saying goodbye.

Instead of buying new shoes, I had my old ones repaired.

gerund. verbs/adjectives with preposition in combinations.
She objects to working on Saturdays.

I am interested in learning English.

She is responsible for implementing new policy.

gerund. go + some expression verbs.
I went swimming last Saturday.

Do you go shopping every weekend.

inf. subj
To smoke is bad for your health.

To win means everything to him.

To speak a foreign language well requires practice.

inf. obj
I want to sleep

I will arrange to meet

I am planning to have a party.

I struggled to stay awake.

inf. after adj/noun
It is heavy to lift.

It is her ambition to open her own shop.

inf. complement
my job is to teach things properly.
inf. with enough/too
I am tall enough to join the basketball team.

We have got enough time to finish this job.

inf. verb + obj pronoun + inf
My sister taught me how to read

Harry invited Johnson to come to his party.

Our teacher requires us to be on time.

inf. purpose
She went to the bank to get some money.
inf. with expressions similar to modals
have/has to,
ought to,
be supposed to,
be to,
be allowed to,
be about to,
be going to,
would like/prefer/love to,

inf. after "to be" + the first/second or next/last/best
He was the first to arrive.
gerund.inf. with no difference in meaning.
He began/started to shout = He began/started shouting.

He continued to shout = He continued shouting.

I like/love/prefer/dislike to read = I like/love/prefer/dislike reading.

I hate/can’t stand/can’t bear to wait = I hate/cant’ stand/can’t bear waiting.

gerund.inf. With difference in meaning.
Hear listen to notice see
Watch feel observe remember
Forget regret try stop

I listened to James singing a song. (Жамэсын дуу дуулах хэсэгээс сонссоно.)
I listened to James sing a song. (Жамэсын дууг бүхэлд нь сонссоно)
I will remember to call her. (Ирээдүйд тэрэнрүү залгана гэдэгтэй итгэлтэй мэдэж байгаа)
I will remember calling her. (Өнгөрсөнд залгасан гэдэгээ санаж байгаа)
I will not forget to meet him. (Ирээдүйд уулзахаа мартахгүй)
I will never forget meeting him. (Өнгөрсөнд уулзсанаа мартахгүй)
I regret to say he is not here. (Тэр энд байхгүйд уучлаарай гэж хэлж байна)
I regret saying it. (Би уучлаарай гэж хэлж байна)
I will try to ring the bell. (Боломжтой бол хонх дугаргахаар оролдоно)
I will try ringing the bell. (Би хонхыг дугарагахаар оролдож байх болно)
I stopped to smoke at ten o’clock. (Би 10 цагт тамхи татахаа зогсоосон)
I stopped smoking a year ago. (Би тамхи татахаа бүр болсон гэсэн санаа)
I never forget kissing my girl first.
Don’t forget to lock the door when you leave.
I forgot to mail the letter.

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