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SNCO Course 14 Communication


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Proper preparation is essential for?
Effective Communication
Planning Identify Factors and Organization leads to effective communication, along with planning and organizing strategies and determining the effectiveness of samples of elements:
Measurable Behavior
When planning your communication, what is the first factor to consider?
Analyzing your audience
The person or organization we are communicating on behalf of, such as our supervisor, CDR, or the Air Force is?
The sending audience
The receiving audience is
The person who will be receiving the communication
What are some concerns that experts say we should consider when analyzing our audience?
1- Is my communication in sync with organizational policy
2- Am I communicating the intended message
3- Who should coordinate on this
4- Will the organization be embarrassed by what I write or say

When analyzing your receiving audience, what are some things you should consider?
Who will be my audience: communication should be appropriate for the audience.
We should gauge what 3 things for our audience?

Why should we know about what our audience knows about our subject?
The more they know the less explaining. The less they know the more explaining.
Why is it important to know your ausiences background (career field, services, etc)
Knowing the audiences background will help you match your communication to the audience. Civilian audiences, leave out military acronyms.
If an audience is hostile, your communication needs to be more what?
Once you have analyzes your audience, what is you next step?
Choose a topic
Narrowing your topic will do what?
- Allow adequate coverage of material
- Focus your attention on a specific area
- Requires less research
- Provide a better chance for the audience to get your intended message
- Provide a better chance for audience to get your intended message

After you have narrowed your topic what is the next step?
Purpose: The reason for our communication
How can you benefit from knowing the purpose for commnication?
- Ensures your communication does what you intended
- Helps you organize your thoughts
- Focuses you communication
- Identifies what you want the receiving audience to do with your communicatio.

The purpose for communicating generally falls into one of four categories:
- To Inspire
An effective "Purpose Statement" not only lets the audience know the reason for your communication but it also:
Appeals to the audience
In your purpose statement you should use one or many types of appeal. What are these?
- Let them know what's in it for them
- Use empathy (you've walked in their shoes or understand their situation)
- Establish common ground (Establish credibility by showing them you share common experience and knowledge)

Purpose statement: Experts tell us, to improve our organizations effiency by more than forty percent, we must incorporate problem solving techniques in our daily routines.
- Persuades the audience to use problem-solving techniques
- Tells the reader what's in it for them
Where can you find support material quickly and effiently?
Libraries, books, magazines, research databases, and internet
Sometimes overlooked, who can be an obvious excellent course for info/support?
Interaction may be required for support material- What are some of these interactions?
- Email
- Interviews
- Over the phone
- In person

What support material can be found in our office? In other agencies?
- AF OI's
- Manuals
- Maj Com
- Reserve/Guard
- Colleges/Business
- Handbooks
- DOD Agencies

What are 2 different outline techniques?
Horizontal and Vertical
What is the purpose of outlining?
Arrange main and supporting idea in a visible framework. This allows you to see and test your logic on paper.
What are the different patterns?
- Chronological
- Spatial/Geographical
- Cause and Effect
- Problem/Solution
- Sequential
- Topical
- Comparison/Contrast
- Reasoning/Logic

Discussing events, problems, or processes in the sequence of time in which they take place or should take place. The simplest and most commonly used approach in writing is:
What four areas are covered in the "Techniques of Organizing"
1- Generating and Refining Content
2- Choosing a pattern of organization
3- Developing the introduction, Body, and Conclusion
4- Using transitions

After the outline, your next step is to generate a
Rough Draft
How do you draft an outline without critical judgement?
- Get ideas out
- Stick to your outline (Cut and paste later)
- Don't second guess yourself
- Don't worry about grammar or punctuation (Fix small stuff later)

What are the 8 patterns?
- Chronological
- Patial/Geographical
- Cause/Effect
- Problem/Solution
- Sequential
- Topical
- Comparison/Contrast
- Reasone/Logic

Starting at a point in space and proceeding in a sequence to another point, for example, North to South, East to West, clockwise, or counterclockwise, top to bottom is what pattern?
Shows one or more ideas, actions, or conditions leads to other ideas, actions, or conditions is what pattern?
Use this pattern to identify and describe a problem or issue and then discuss possible solutions to the problems
Use this approach to describe a sequence of steps necessary to complete a technical procedure or process
Commonly used to present general statements followed by numbered listings of subtopics to support, explain, or expand the statements:
Use this style when you need to discuss similarities and/or differences between topics, concepts, or ideas:
Use this pattern when your mission is to present research that will lead your audience down the path to your point of view:
What should be used to focus the audience's attention on the subject of your paper or speech?
Attention Step
What are some attention steps?
- Rhetorical Question
- Quotation
- Joke
- A Startling Statement
- A Gimmick

Your Attention Step should lead up to what?
Purpose Statement
After the Purpose Statement, you should complete next?
The introduction by laying down the roadmap (Overview)
An effective conclusion is made up of 3 componenets. What are they?
- Summary
- Re-Motivation
- Closure

An effective conclusion leaves the audience with what?
A feeling that all important points have been made.
What acts as a "brake light" alerting your audience that your presentation is ending?
Conclusion Statement
After you summarize, you could add what?
Why do many professional speakers and writers consider the closure the most important part of communication?
Because people remember much of what they heard or read last.
One effective way to close is to tie your closing remarks back to you opening statement This is referred to as:
"Closing the Loop"
Closure must provide a strong sense of finality and convince the audience of what?
That you've reached your destination
What signals the audience that you are traveling to a new point?
Tranisitions are used for what?
between the Introduction --> Body --> Conclusion
For major transactions to be effective they should:
- Generating and refining Ideas
- Choosing a Pattern of Organization
- Developing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
- Using Transitions

Support material falls into 2 major categories. What are they?
Clarification Support and Proof Support
Clarification support is used to prevent what?
Confusion or misunderstanding
Clarification Support is used to explain what?
- Unfamiliar or ambigous terms
- Acronyms
- Concepts

What adds credibility, shows something is true and proves or supports a point?
Proof Support
Integrating sources means ensuring what 2 things?
- Support material flows smoothly in our written or spoken presentations
- Support material logically fits within the paper or speech
What are the 3 guidlines for using support material in our communications?
- Support should always be appropriate
- Support should be accurate
- Give credit where credit is due

What are the 5 types of support?
- Definitions
- Examples
- Comparisons
- Testimony
- Statistics

What is used primarily as clarification support because they explain or clarify terms, jargon, acronyms, or concepts
Can examples be used as clarification or proof support?
Yes- Real Life and Imaginary
Comparisons are most frequently used to clarify what?
Relationships but can be used to prove a point
A figure of speech used to compare two things auch as something concrete to something abstract is referred to as what?
What is an effective way to proving a point. "Old vs New"
What is like a metaphor but is less direct. Uses words such as "like" or "as"
What 2 types of support are most comonly associated with proof support?
Testimony and Statistics
What are 3 ways for using testimony?
- Direct Quotation
- Quotation with Omissions
- Paraphrase

What is an effective way to summarize a large amount of information from a source?
What are 3 rules to keep in mind when using testimony?
1- Remember General Guidlines
2- Keep testimony brief
3- Use you testimony in context (don't bend it to say what you would like it to be)

What support material is most misused?
What are 3 methods for providing statistical information?
1- Ratios: Numerical comparison of 2 or more things)
2- Percentages: The portion of something that is compared
3- Raw Numbers: Numbers that have not been manipulated yet

What are 5 rules we should follow with statistics?
1- Round Off: 84.7 --> 85%
2- Use sparingly: Don't overload the audience
3- Dramatize: Ask hypothetical questions
4- Recency: Use recent stats
5- Context: Use in proper context

A statement or arguement based on a false or invalid conclusions or an illogical thought pattern considered an unacceptable way of thinking is what?
A process of drawing conclusions or inferfences from evidence often defined as thinking with a purpose-
What are 2 most common reasoning fallacies?
- Slanted Reasoning
- Emotional Appeals
This type of slanted reasoning occurs when few examples used as proof do not, or may not, represent the whole-
Hasty Generalization
This fallacy in reasoning employs the device of offering 2 alternatives, one the speaker or writer wants us to accept and one that will question or never accept-
Faulty Dilemma
Reasoning by analogy- compares one situation to another- Based on the assumption that what is true of a simple or famaliar situation is also true of a complex or complicated task-
Faulty Analogy
Distorting or omitting important evidence to get a point across-
Stacking the Evidence
Also known as the begging question, it's the practice of slipping in a an assertion and passing it off as an ordinary question?
Loaded Question
Emotional Appeal includes:
Name Calling: designed to sway a listener, lumping everyone in one category

Guttering Generality: Giving an admiral name

Snob/Prestige: keeping up with the Jones

Plain Folks: simple things in life are worth having

Band Wagon: It's the thing to do

In editing, the Tongue and Quill provides excellent information, in the arrangement and flow. What are these tasks you should accomplish?
- Check your tasking and purpose
- Check your introduction
- Compare your introduction and conclusion
- Check for revelance and completness

Paragraph structure and clarity should include:
- Unity of Focus
- Topic Sentence
- Supporting ideas

IN editing, when is th etime to really concentrate on the "shall stuff"
Sentences, phrases and words: passive voice, unclear language, excessive wordiness, grammatical errors and spelling mistakes
The Tongue and Quill recommended the first reading of your draft is to check for techincal accuracy and coverage. What should you be looking for?
Checking the validity of the statistics and numbers
The Tongue and Quill recommended the second reading of your draft is to check for arrangement and flow ideas. What should you be looking for?
Compare the introduction to the conclusion and ensure a logical order of main points
The Tongue and Quill recommended the third reading of your draft is th check for readability and mechanics. What should you be looking for?
Ensure the correct words are used and sentences and phrases are correct and free of typographical errors
A good editor looks for
content and reviews the material
A person who goes beyond the lements of the Tongue and Quill and tries to change the writer's style or word choice for no real reason is referred to as a:
Nit Picker
Feedback should be:
-Positive and Negative

-Specific rather than general

-Directed at behavior the receiver can control

-Directed at the person's work or behavior, not the person

A good presentation is made up of a blend of:
Visual and vocal techniques referred to as presentation techniques
Effective eye contact can be described in 2 words:
Direct and Impartial
Benefits of good body movement:
- Catches the eye of the listner and helps hold their attention

- Convient way of punctuating your message so listener will know when you are moving to next subject

- Helps relieve nervousness in the speaker
- Can place audience at ease

Effective body movement can be described as
Free and purposeful
Gestures are the purposeful use of:
Hands, arms, shoulders, head
Effective gestures are
Natural and spontaneous
What 3 techniques can help reduce the tenson that is a natural part of public speaking?
- Eye Contact
- Gestures
- Body Movement

AFH 33-337
Tongue and Quill
The more effective you use this the better presentation you will have-
A good voice has 3 important chracteristics-
- Reasonably pleasant
- Easily understood
- Expressed differences in meaning

Reasonably pleasant, easily understood, and expressing differences in meaning is referred to as:
- Quality
- Intelligibility
- Variety

Quality refers to:
Overall impression a voice makes on others
Intelligibilty depends on what 4 factors?
1- Articulation (Stems from laziness of tongue and lips, failure to open the mouth wide enough)
2- Pronunciation-Misplaced accents
3- Overuse of stock expressins (ok, you know) and Oral pauses (Um, Uh)
4- Substandard grammar

Name 5 voice fundamentals:
1- Rate: Not too fast/slow
2- Volumne: entire audience can hear but not too loud
3- Force: Sudden increase or reduction in force can grab audience attention
4- Pitch: Use high/low notes in voice
5- Emphasis: Use wisely. Avoid over emphasis and continual emphasis

When planning communications, whom should the writer/speaker consider?
Both sender and receiver
You would like to speak at the CDR's call to solicit volunteers to help with base blood drives- What is the purpose of your briefing?
What best explains the purpose of outlining your thoughts as you prepare to communicate?
To arrange main points and supporting ideas in a visible framework
When is the problem/solution pattern of arrnagement used?
If it's reasonable to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each soultion
What pattern arrangement is well suited to discuss the evaluation of the enlisted force?
Base Youth Center offers an number of after school programs. Which pattern of arrangement would be most appropriate for writng an article about the programs for the paper?
Whether written or spoken, what are the necessary characteristics of an effective introduction?
Attention step , purpose statement with appeal and an overview
What is the purpose of the summary?
Reinforce key points
You brief basic trainees on LES and EOM that is sent to EFTS. You look out and see puzzled faces. How do you avoid the confusion?
Use clarification support
What is the importance of support material?
Support should be based on objective facts
How do you know if you have paragraph unity?
When all the sentences support the main idea or topic sentence
Minor support sentnces should define, explain, or add proof to the major support. What is the purpose of the major support?
Define, explain, or prove the topic sentence
What is the most likely purpose of a closing sentence at the end of a paragraph?
To summarize the paragraph and help the reader to move smoothly into the next paragraph
WHat is the purpose of paragraph coherence?
To allow the reader to see relationships between sentences
What are the best ways to achieve paragraph coherence?
Use pronouns, repeat key words, and be consistent with verbs and voice
Several is considered to be a plural noun and therefore would need a?
Plural Verb
Joe reads reads books because they are entertaining. This is an example of?
Proper pronoun reference
Is paragraph unity critical to achieve effective paragraph developement?
Yes because it helps your reader look for the controlling idea given by the topic sentence and they look for your major or minor support material
What are the 3 Reads when editiong your written communication?
- Arrangement and flow

- Paragraph Structure

- Clarity, sentences, phrases, and words

Intelligibilty refers to what portion of your speech?
How well your speech is understood
Pronunciation refers to what portion of your speech?
The traditional utterance of words
While designing visual aides, what shoul dyou keep in mind?
Use on ly materials that are related directly to your topic and that are graphical represention of your idea
Sentences following your topic sentence should support it. Their job is to:
- Clarify
- Describe
- Prove
- Explain the topic sentence

What are the 2 types of sentences:
Major and Minor
A major sentence should support sentences, ....
Define, explain, or add proof to the topic sentence. Directly supports the topic sentence
A minor sentence should define, ...
Expalin or add proof to the major sentence. It supports the major sentence
Topic sentences usually prompt-
a question when you read them
Closing sentences should do some or all of what?
- Rephrase the topic sentence
- Summarize the material in the paragraph
- Transition to the next paragraph

What are some connective words to show relationships between the ideas in your sentences and paragraphs
- First
- Next
- Also
- Therefore

What are some examples of words that show addition which connect thoughts?
- And
- Then
- Also
- Besides
- Furthermore
- Likewise
- Additionally
- Moreover

What are some words that show contrast?
- But
- Still
- Yet
- Nevertheless

Words that indicate choice?
- Either
- Or
- Otherwise

What are some words that reflect a result? They connect consequence to the preceeding statement-
- Accordingly
- Hence- Therefore
- Consequently

Pronouns which indicate the writer, the person written to, or the person or thing aritten about is:
Personal Pronoun
1st person:
I or We (Person Writing)
2nd Person:
You (Person written to)
3rd Person
Him, Her, Them, It, She, He, They (Person or thing written about)
Verbs change form to show?
the time of their actions
What is the property of a verb that shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon?
Passive: The dog was seen by John.
Active: John saw the dog.

Subjects and verbs must always agree in number. This is known as:
Subject-Verb Agreement
Rule of Thumb:
If verb ends in "s" it's singular, if not, it's plural

What are some singular verbs?

- Each
- Either
- No One
- One
- Anyone
- Anybody

What are some examples of plural words?
- Several
- Many
- Few
- Both

The word or phrase to which the pronoun refers is:
I always carry extra fan belts because it is often useful.
Fan Belts is plural and It is singular
I always carry an extra fan belt

Careless use of pronouns can lead to confusion. This is called
Ambigous Pronoun.

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