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Anatomy: Ch. 3 Cells


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What are the 3 main regions within a cell?
-plasma membrane

What is the Plasma Membrane?
-Flexible, semi-permeable, stretchy barrier
What are the Lipid Bilayer Parts?
1. Phospholipid
2. Cholesterol
3. Glycolipid
4. Glycoprotein(protein and a carb)
5. Integral protein
6. Peripheral protein

What make up Membrane Protiens?
-Ion Channels
-they can be gated(cell can control when they can be opened or closed)
-integral, ions move through membrane
-involved in moving bigger stuff
-integral, move large molecules
-bind to things
-peripheral, receive information
-peripheral, speed up reactions
-Cell identity markers
-peripheral, identify cell type

What is solute?
can be dissolved
What is a solvent?
-Substance that dissolves something else into it
-does the dissolving
What is Concentration gradient?
-uneven areas of concentration
-solutes move down or with the gradient until it reaches equilibrium
What are the types of Passive Transport?
1. Simple Diffustion
2. Facilitated diffusion
3. Osmosis

What is Simple Diffusion?
-lipid soluble move through the membrane
-ions move through ion channels
What is Facilitated diffusion?
-large molecules down gradient
What is Osmosis?
Diffusion of water
What is Osmotic Pressure? And what are the three solutions that go with it?
-Solute particles that can't pass through the membrane exert a force upon it

1. isotonic solution
-Concentration is equal on both sides of the membrane
2. Hypertonic solution
-More concentrated outside
-Crenation-blood cells shrink(shrivel up and cells)
3. Hypotonic solution
-More concentrated inside the cell
-Water rushes inside the cell that create equilibrium and the cell gets bigger and bursts
-Hemolysis-blood cells swell and burst

What is Active Transport?
-Energy is used to move substances against their concentration gradient

1. Transport in vesicles
-Phagocytosis-bring large particles into the cell
-large bulk phase endocytosis-bring a drop of extracellular fluid into the cell
2. Sodium-Potassium pump
Moves 3 NA(sodium) out and 2 K (potassium) in

What is the cytoplasm?
All cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
What is the Cytosol?
Fluid portion that surrounds the organelles
What are Organelles?
Specialized structures inside the cell that have specific shapes and functions
Name the Organelles in the body.
-Endoplasmic Reticulum(SER/RER)
-Golgi Comples

What is the Cytoskeleton?
Network of Protein filaments
-Intermediate filaments

What are intermediate filaments?
-Thin, found in parts of the cell that stretch, hold organelles in place and hold cells together
What are microfilaments?
-Found toward the edge of the cell, contribute to strength and shape
What are the microtubules?
-move organelles within a cell
What is the Centrosome?
-Found near the nucleus
-Made of centrioles and pericentriolar material
-involved in a cell division

What are Cilia and Flagella?
-Projections from the cell surface that are used for motion
-numberous, short, hair-like, move fluid across and around a cell
-long, whip-like, move an entire cell

What are ribosomes?
-Site of protein synthesis
-made of rRNA
-Contain a large and small subunit
-Some are attached to the ER and some move freely through the cytosol

What is teh Endoplasmic Reticulum?
-Network of folded membranes

-Rough ER
-covered with ribosomes, protein synthesis
-Smooth ER
-Lacks ribosomes, lipid synthesis

What is the Golgi Complex?
-modify and package proteins
What are Lysosomes?
-Contain digestive enzymes
-Break down worn out cell parts
What are Peroxisomes?
-Contain enzymes that are used to detoxify harmful substances
What is Proteasome?
-Destroy un-needed , damaged, or faulty proteins

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