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Psych 346 Implicit memory


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medial temporal lobe (including the hippocampus)
explicit memory
implicit memory
fast and flexible system of skill learning
Prefrontal cortex and hippcampus learn quickly,
vulnerable to disruption

slow & stable skill learning
caudate, basal ganglia
learns slowly,
relatively automatic,
resists disruption

Priming for assault related words (Michael et. al 2005)
Bigger priming for the words that were related to whatever happened to them vs. general threat words (PTSD patients)
Control condition- people who undergone an assault but not gone under PTSD- showed same amount of priming for both

Neglect patients
They could have mental representation of both sides, they were only consciously able to bring up one side

Subliminal perception
Characters presented before scan for 50ms with mask – could not consciously perceive
People got more items correct for the ones they liked, than the ones they knew
Brain Areas that Activate More for Preference Regardless of Memory
Left anterior frontal: Preference > Memory

Some Brain Areas Activate More for (Explicit) Memory

Left frontalpolar: Memory > Preference

Subliminal Perception

- may have influences on attitudes, preferences, perceptions

- often bigger effects on brain activity than on behavior.

latent inhibition
classical conditioning phenomenon whereby multiple prior presentations of a neutral stimulus will interfere with its involvement in subsequent conditioning
mere exposure effect
A tendency for a neutral stimulus to acquire positive value with repeated exposure
The time-dependent process by which a new trace is gradually woven into the fabric of memory and by which its components and their interconnections are cemented together
An area of the brain close to the hippocampus that is involved in emotional processing
Brain structure in the medial temporal lobe that is important for long-term memory formation
Patients with amygdala damage
Failed to condition, but was able to remember the colors and identify the associations
Patients with hippocampal damage
Clear evidence of conditioning, but was unable to describe the slides
Classical conditioning
A learning procedure whereby a neutral stimulus (a bell) that is paired repeatedly with a response-evoking stimulus (meat powder) will come to evoke that response (salivation)
Threshold view
memory traces have different strengths and have to “reach threshold” for different types: lowest threshold for priming; medium threshold for familiarity; high threshold for recollection

[-] (Would predict similar effects of variables on implicit and explicit tests, and Schacter says there too many differences (dissociations)


priming is result of temporary activation of existing representations (independent of elaboration)

+ priming does not (seem to) depend on elaborative processing
+ quick fading of priming effects in some cases
+ difficulties priming new information
- some priming seems to last a long time
- some evidence for priming of new information/associations

conceptual vs data-driven processes; most explicit/direct tests rely on the first, most implicit/indirect tests rely on the second.

+ priming does not (seem to) depend on elaborative processing
+ can better account for long-lasting priming in some cases
- harder time account for short-lived priming
- doesn’t deal directly with differences in conscious awareness

Multiple memory systems

different memory systems for aware vs unaware performance (e.g., PRS vs episodic)

+ does a good job of describing impaired vs spared abilities in amnesia
- how many systems / where to draw the line
- why can’t amnesics prime new information?

Levels of processing dissociation

Priming has to be processed in a way that is compatible with test.

Modality dissociation
The indirect test is more affected by the modality, if you have heard the word, it’s not really going to be any help to you when you see the stem completion

Retention interval dissociation
WORD FRAGMENT COMPLETION – better than chance 1 year later! (This is because it's highly constrained)
Statistical independent association
Performance on implicit tests (e.g., word fragment completion) did not correlate with performance on explicit tests (e.g., free recall, recognition)

this suggests different processes

(Tulving’s Encoding Specificity)

the way that you encode something has major implications for what will be an effective cue for that information later on. 
what accounts for most dissociations?

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