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Neo- Freudians view
life and creativity
at least some human behavior is purposive

most conscious aspect of personality; how we interact with the physical environment
inner rhythm of the universe linking experiences that can be coincidental but in a feeling sense have a meaning

total integrated personality- psyche
unconscious provides what is missing from consciousness to make a complete whole
process of becoming fully developed person
psychic images sensed by the ego

personal unconscious
repressed, forgotten, or subliminally perceived experiences
Transcendent function
integrating opposing aspects of personality

aspect of personality that adapts to the world
aspects of the psyche that are rejected from consciousness by the ego b/c they are inconsistent with one's self-concept. Usually when dreaming
a man's prototype of women
-second test of courage
- represents irrational moods and feelings
- become too well acquainted become different and obsessed
-rare for young men

Represents rational side for women
-when acquainted: highly opinionated and preoccupied with power
Archaic images derived from the collective unconscious

Earth Mother

represents the opposing forces of fertility and destruction

Wise Old Man:

wisdom and meaning

The Hero

powerful person who fights against great odds to conquer or vanquish evil: in the end undone by an insignificant person or event

The Self

archetype of archetypes; unites the opposition elements in the psyche
turning inward of psychic energy with an orientation toward the subject
turning outward of psychic energy so that a person is oriented toward the objective and away from the subjective


assist the unconscious in claiming to rightful role, challenging the inflation of the ego
Dream Analysis

3 stages

⬢ Dreamer recalls the dream
⬢ Amplifications: elaboration of dream images
⬢ Active imagination: continue with dream imagery in waking imagination

Jung Criticism
⬢ Embracing spiritualism and mysticism
⬢ Archetypes are metaphysical and verifiable
⬢ Theory is unclear and inconsistent

Jung Contribution
⬢ Influential followers throughout the world
⬢ Notions of the introversion and extraversion have stimulated research in personality psychology

Object Relations Theory
study of interpersonal relations, including the unconscious images and feelings associated with the important people in one’s life
4 Principles of ORT
• Every relationship has good and bad aspects to it
• Every relationship has a mix of love and hate
• Need to distinguish between the object as a whole and it’s individual parts
• We’re aware of, and are upset by, these contradictory feelings

2 Themes of Ob Relations Theory
• Person’s pattern of relating to others is laid down early in childhood
• Patterns formed at childhood recur over and over throughout later life

Margaret Mahler
Personality is a process of breaking down a newborns psychological attachment with others
period when the infant is fused to the mother
Separation- Individuation
process of acquiring a distinct identity
⬢ Separation- anxiety

Karen Horney

Disagreement with Freud

• Freud’s theories had little relevance during the Depression
• Social experience determines whether one will have psychological problems
• Didn’t buy into penis envy, anatomy is not destiny

Basic Evil
feeling that the world is untrustworthy and evil
Basic Hostility
feeling of anger resulting from experience of basic evil
Basic Anxiety
Fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world
Vicious Cycle
pattern that can follow from basic anxiety
Neurotic Needs
needs that people feel but that are neither realistic nor, really, desirable and contradictory
Neurotic Needs

3 adjustment Patterns

⬢ Moving toward people: be compliant (liked, wanted, desired, welcomed, accepted, needed)
⬢ Moving against people: hostile against people: hostile type, gain power over people and events.
⬢ Make other people feel weak so you feel better.
⬢ Moving away from people: detached type, create a distance between oneself and the people and events in the world

Attachment theory
Long Term feeling of closeness between caregiver and infant
Attachment theory

o Harlow’s Monkeys

found that contact comfort was more important to forming attachment than biological need
Attachment Theory

o John Bowlby

responsive mothers create a safe have and secure for the child to safely and happily explore
Insecure attachment

Anxious- Ambivalent

• Comes from inconsistent homes
• Highly aware of mom’s presence
• Very upset when she leaves
• Clingy when she returns
• Tends to drive people away & are more likely to be bullied

Insecure Attachment


⬢ Come from homes where they are often rejected when they try to cuddle
⬢ Stay calm when mom leaves
⬢ Ignored/reject her upon her return

Attachment in Adulthood

o Secure attachment

positive attitude toward mom carries into adult relationships
⬢ Longer, more stable relationships
⬢ Relationships are based on trust and friendship
⬢ Seek their partners when stressed
⬢ Realistic and positive about their relationships
⬢ Happier and more fulfilled at work

Attachment in Adulthood

o Insecure attachment

⬢ Anxious- Ambivalent

clinginess becomes obsession
⬢ Very jealous
⬢ In and out of relationships
⬢ Low self-esteem
⬢ Feel appreciated at the office

Attachment in Adulthood

o Insecure attachment

⬢ Avoidant

Their just not that into anyone
⬢ More likely to have relationships end than secures
⬢ Get over it faster
⬢ Withdraw from partners when stressed
⬢ Prefer working period- even better if doing it alone


o Lifespan development

idea that development processes continue throughout the lifespan

o Ego Identity

overall sense of self that emerges from transactions with social reality

o Psychosocial crisis

period when some interpersonal issue is being dealt with and growth potential and vulnerability are both high
Identity Achievement
have gone through crisis period and committed to an occupation and ideology
Identity Moratorium
still in crisis: attempting some compromise among parental wishes, society’s demands, and their own capabilities
• Ex- Family wants you to do one occupation but you want to do something else

Identity Forclosure
made a commitment without experiencing a crisis (i.e. becoming what others have intended for them)
⬢ Ex-Taking up and occupation that runs in your family just because that is the pattern

Identity Diffusion
Lack commitment; haven’t decided upon an occupation and uninterested in ideological matters
Play Therapy
⬢ Behavioral record
⬢ Face value of the behavior

Ego Psychology
psychodynamic framework in which ego functioning has more status
Freud vs Ego Psychology
• Freud: the ego’s job is to mediate between the id, superego, and reality
• Ego Psychology: ego is involved in adaptation

⬢ Possible Solution
o Ego has two jobs

⬢ Mediate conflict between the id, superego, and outside world
⬢ Adaptation
⬢ Ego
o Conflict Sphere and Conflict

Prrimary Ego Autonomy
ego exists independently from the id from birth onward
⬢ Need for cognition

Secondary Ego Autonomy
an ego function can become satisfying in it’s own right
• Functional autonomy

Effectance motivation
need to have an impact on the environment
Competence motivation
motive to be effective or adept in dealing with the environment
⬢ Alfred Adler
o Feelings of Inferiority
o Compensation::

o The sole dynamic force behind all our actions is the striving for success or superiority
o realization that one is deficient in some way (minor or major)
o making up for a weakness by developing strengths in other areas

⬢ Individual Psychology and Birth order
o Only children:

⬢ Spend life as the center of family attention
⬢ May develop an exaggerated sense of importance
⬢ May fail to develop a true interest in others

⬢ Individual Psychology and Birth order
o First Borns:
⬢ Many expectations put upon them
⬢ Can motivate them to high achievement: OR
⬢ Make the child vulnerable to fear of dethronement

⬢ Individual Psychology and Birth order
o Second Borns:
⬢ Best scenario
⬢ Enter the world with a rival in place so they are striving for superiority from day one

⬢ Individual Psychology and Birth order

o The Youngest

⬢ Worst position
⬢ Often spoiled which undermines the desire to strive

⬢ Block and Block: Ego control
extent to which a person tends to inhibit the expression of impulses
⬢ Many enthusiastic wants and phases.
⬢ Comfortable with inconsistency
⬢ Some are over contained

⬢ Block and Block: Ego resiliency
To modify level of ego control and adapt to the demands of a situation
⬢ Low in ego resiliency are ego brittle (cant change how you deal with a situation)
⬢ High resiliency can deal with situations well.

Ego Development
the development of the ego’s ability to synthesize/ integrate experience
Loevinger vs Freud

Ego development

• Freud: personality develops early in life > Loev: ego development continues into adulthood
• Freud: ego’s job doesn’t change > Loev: nature of the synthesizing process that defines the ego changes

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