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History 8th Chapter 10


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Decembrist Revolt
When people picked up ideas from Napoleon and demanded a constitution/ Alexander I died in revolt
Alexander II
Came to throne in 1855 / czar of Russia / reforms
Aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-Russian people within the empire
Bloody Sunday
When troops killed and wounded hundreds of Russians / made people loose faith in the czar
October Manifesto
When czar Nicholas promised freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union / he agreed to summon Duma
Peter Stolypin
prime minister appointed under Nicholas II in 1906 / conservative who encouraged arrests, pogroms, and executions / strengthened zemstvos, and improved education

Francis Joseph
King of Hapsburg / ruled until 1916 / inherited the Austrian Empire from Francis I / after Sardinian defeat of Austria, realized he needed to strengthen his empire at home / formed limited constitution and legislature

Dual Monarchy
system in which Francis Joseph was both emperor of Austria and king of Hungary but the two states had different constitutions and parliaments / Austria and Hungary only shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs

Giuseppe Mazzini
founder of Young Italy in the 1830s / nationalist leader / set up a failed revolution in Rome in 1849

Italian nationalist movement / passed many Italian regions to Sardinia’s Victor Emmanuel II in 1848
Victor Emmanuel II
Sardinian and later Italian king / gained many Italian regions in 1848, 1859, and 1860 / made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister in 1852

Camillo Cavour
made Sardinian (later Italian) prime minister in 1852 by Victor Emmanuel II / believed in Realpolitik / reformed Sardinian economy and wanted to end Austrian power in Italy and annex Lombardy and Venetia

Giuseppe Garibaldi
nationalist and ally of Mazzini / wanted to unite southern Italy / supported by Cavour / army of “Red Shirts” / turned southern Italy over to the Sardinian government in an act of patriotism, forming an almost complete Italy

House of Krupp
German steel business of Alfred Krupp / boomed after 1871 / became enormous monopoly
August Thyssen
German business tycoon / between 1871 and 1914, built a small steel factory of 70 workers into an empire of 50,000

Iron Chancellor
Otto von Bismarck / sought to erase local loyalties and crush all opposition to the imperial state
an economic union created by Prussia in the 1830s / dismantled tariff barriers between many German states

Otto von Bismarck
from Prussian Junker class / diplomat for Prussia who was eventually made chancellor by William I in 1862 / united German states under Prussian control by 1872

William I
Prussian king / made Otto von Bismarck chancellor in 1862

prime minister
realistic politics based on the needs of the state

to take control of
“battle for civilization” / von Bismarck’s campaign against the Catholic Church

Social Welfare
programs to help certain groups of people
someone who wants to abolish all government
movement away from one’s homeland
elected assemblies in local governments
violent mob attacks on Jews
elected national legislature
freeing the serfs

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