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Management Ops 301


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60% of the average workers time is spent doing what?
working in a team environment
what percent of white-collar workers work in a team environment?
what is a team?
a small group of people with complementary skills who work together to accomplish shared goals while holding themselves mutually accountable for results.
the process of people working together to accomplish these goals
Four roles a manager must play...
Team Leader, facilitator, member, coach
the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts
social loafing
The presence of "free-riders" who slack off becasue responsibility is diffused in teams and others do the work.
Formal groups...
fulfill a variety of essential roles within the formal organizational structure. They are officially recognized and supported by the organization
Informal groups...
not depicted on organizational charts, they emerge from natural or spontaneous relationships among people.
interest groups
a type of informal group, people band together to pursue a common cause such as working conditions
friendship groups
a form of informal groups, that develop because of shared non-work interests
support groups
informal group, members help each other out to do their jobs or cope with problems
brings people together outside of their daily job assignments to work in a small team for a specific purpose. Narrow, focused and on going.
project team/task forces
bring people together to work on common problems but on a temporary basis rather than permanent.
cross-functional team
members come from different units, and work together on specific projects or tasks with the needs of the whole organization in mind
virtual teams
members work together largely through computer mediated interactions. They operate in a similar way to other teams just how things get done are different
advantages of virtual teams
save time and travel, can be easily expanded, and discussions and information can be stored online
self-managing work teams
teams of workers whose jobs have been redesigned to create a high degree of task interdependence, have been given authority to make decisions, and accept responsibility for results
advantages of self-managing teams
better performance, decreased costs, and higher morale.
Team building
a sequence of planned activities used to analyze the functioning of a team and make constructive changes in how it operates
three things that an effective team does
perform its tasks, satisfy members, and remain viable for the future
Team Effectiveness Equation
Team Effectiveness = quality of inputs + (process gains - process loses)
Group Process
the way the members of any team actually work together and transform inputs into outputs. Also called group dynamics.
Five distinct phases in the life cycle of any team
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
Forming Stage
involves the first entry of individuals into a team
Storming Stage
a period of high emotionality and can be the most difficult stage to pass through.
Norming Stage
Cooperation is important and team members begin to become coordinated and operate with rules of conduct
Performing stage
more mature, organized and well functioning. They deal with complex tasks
Adjourning Stage
when members prepare to achieve closure and disband
is a behavior expected of team members. a "rule" or "standard" that guides behavior.
the degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team
Task activities
an action taken by a team member that directly contributes to the groups performance purpose
maintenance activities
an action taken by a team member that supports the emotional life of the team
distributed leadership
every member of a team is continually responsible for both recognizing when task or maintenance activities are need and taking actions to provide them
disruptive activities
self-serving behaviors that interfere with team effectiveness. Such as withdrawing and fooling around.
A decentralized communication network allows....
it allows all members to communicate directly with one another
centralized communication network
(wheel or chain communication structure) communication flows only between individual members and a hub or center point
restricted communication network
communication is limited and biased, with negative consequences for group process and effectiveness
decision making
process of making choices among alternative courses of action. One of the most important group processes
the tendency for highly cohesive teams to lose their evaluative capabilities
teams of 5 to 10 members meet to generate ideas, usually following strict guidelines. criticism is ruled out.
wilder more radical ideas generated during brainstorming - they are encouraged
nominal group technique
structured meeting agenda that allows everyone to contribute ideas without the interference of evaluative comments by others.
the process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them
Effective communication
it occurs when the senders message is fully understood by the receiver
efficient communication
communication that occurs at a minimum cost
social capital
the capacity to attract support and help from others in order to get things done
persuasive communication
communication in which the recipient agrees with or supports the message being presented
credible communication
earns trust, respect, and integrity in the eyes of others
is anything that interferes with the effectiveness of the communication process
Communication channel
the pathway or medium through which a message is conveyed from sender to receiver
nonverbal communication
takes place through things such as hand movement, facial expressions, body posture, eye contact etc.
mixed message
occurs when a persons words communicate one message while his or her actions, body, language, appearance communicate something else
the intentional distortion of information to make it appear favorable to the recipient
status effect
the hierarchy of authority in organizations creates another potential barrier to effective communications. People dont wanna criticize their boss.
Management Enemy #1
information distortion/filtering is the main problem.. telling the boss what they wanna hear.
Active Listening
the process of taking action to help someone say what they really mean. Be sincere to find full meaning and controlling emotions
the process of telling other people how you feel about something they did or said, or about a situation in general
channel richness
the capacity of a communication channel to effectively carry information
electronic grapevine
use electronic media to pass messages and information among members of social networks.
substantive conflicts
involve disagreements over such things as goals and tasks, allocation of resources, distribution of rewards, and job assignments
Emotional conflicts
result from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear and resentment, as well as personality clashes
functional conflict
conflict of moderate intensity that can be good for performance and stimulates people toward greater work efforts
dysfunctional conflict
Very low or very high levels of conflict makes it difficult for groups to achieve their goals
Role ambiguities
a cause of conflict that occurs because of unclear job expectations
Resource scarcities
a cause of conflict in which resources are shared and resource allocation causes conflict.
Task Interdependencies
cause of conflict when individuals or groups must rely on what others do to perform themsleves
Competing Objectives
conflict caused when objectives are poorly set or reward systems are poorly designed
structural differentiation
conflict caused by differences in organization structures and in the characteristics of the people staffing them
unresolved prior conflicts
conflict caused when previous conflicts are not fully resolved and arise again later
conflict resolution
eliminates the underlying causes of conflict and reduces the potential for similar conflict in the future
accommodation or smoothing
being cooperative but unassertive.. letting the wishes of others rule
competition or authoritative command
being uncooperative but assertive, working against the wishes of the other party. Win or lose
being moderately cooperative and assertive, bargaining for acceptable solutions
lose-lose conflict
no one achieves her or his true desires and the underlying reasons for conflict remain unaffected.
win-lose conflict
competing or compromising - each party tries to gain at the others expense. One achieves its desires and one does not
is a process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results.
after-action review
pioneered by the US Army, it is a structured review of lessons learned and results accomplished in a completed project, task force assignment, or special operation.
feedforward controls a.k.a. preliminary controls
take place before a work activity begins, ensuring objectives are clear, directions are established and resources are available.
concurrent controls
focus on what happens during the work process. Goal is to solve problems as they occur.
feedback controls a.k.a. post-action controls
take place after work is completed. Focuses on the quality of results. Helps improve the future.
allowing and encouraging people to exercise self-discipline in performing their jobs.
bureaucratic control
uses authority, policies, procedures, budgets, etc. to make sure that people behavior is consistent with organizational interests.
Clan Control
influences behavior through norms and expectations set by the organizational culture.
Market Control
the influence of market competition on the behavior of the organizations and its members
output standards
measure actual outcomes or work results in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time. Businesses may use earnings per share, sales growth etc.
input standards
measure work efforts that go into a performance task. EX: college professor input standards could be measured by having an orderly syllabus, meeting all class sections, and returning tests on time.
management by exception
the practice of giving attention to situations that show the greatest need for action
the act of influencing behavior through reprimand
progressive discipline
ties reprimands to the severity and frequency of the employees infractions. Penalties for the misbehavior vary according to the significance of the problem
complex one time events with unique components and an objective that must be met with a set time.
project management
responsibility for overall planning, supervision, and control of projects. Must ensure a project is well planned and completed on time, within budget and consistent with objectives.
strategic leadership
creates the capacity for ongoing strategic change. Strategic leaders are those who build organizations that, but constantly reviewing themselves, are able to thrive even in the most difficult times
the generation of a novel idea or unique approach to solving problems or crafting opportunities
the process of coming up with new ideas and putting them into practice
product innovation
result in the creation of new or improved goods and services
process innovations
result in better ways of doing things
business model innovations
result in new ways of making money for a firm
sustainable innovation
the creation of new products and processes that have lower environmental impacts than the available alternatives
green innovations
Innovations that reduce the carbon footprint of an organization or its products
Social business innovations
find ways to use business models to address important social problems
social entrepreneurship
finds novel ways to create changes that solve pressing social problems.
commercializing innovation
turns new ideas into actual products, services or processes that can increase profits through greater sales or reduced profits
what percent of executives said innovation was a top priority? And how many said they were unhappy with how companies innovate?
72% - one third
separate from the organizations structure, give units creative freedom
ambidextrous organization
an organization that is good at both producing and creating.
change leader/agent
a person who takes leadership responsibility for changing the existing pattern of behavior of another person or social system.
top-down change
change is initiated by senior management
bottom-up change
initiative for change comes from any and all parts of the organization, not just the top.
reactive change
responding to event as or after they occur
performance gaps
discrepancies between desired and actual states of affairs that indicate potential problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored.
planned change
taking steps to best align the organization with future challenges
incremental change
bends and nudges existing systems and practices to better align them with emerging problems and opportunities
Transformational change
major and comprehensive redirection of the organization
preparing an organization or situation for change
stabilizing the change and creating conditions for long-term continuity.
force-coercion strategy
uses formal authority as well as rewards and punishments as the primary inducements for change.
Rational persuasion strategies
bring about change through persuasion backed by special knowledge, empirical data and rational argument.
shared power strategy
uses collaboration to identify values, assumptions and goals from which support for change will naturally emerge.
improvisational change
adjustments are continually made as things are being implemented

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