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Abnormal Psychopathology


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Causes: Psychoanalytical Approach
Unresolved conflicts are repressed into the unconscious via defence mechanisms such as denial, displacement and repression
Causes: Humanistic Approach
Maladjustments results when self-actualisation not reached as persons own experience, emotions, needs may be blocked or other.
Causes: Cognitive Approach
Maladaptive behaviour results from irrational thoughts (Ellis) and latent core negative beliefs (Beck)
Treatment: Biological
-Drug therapies
-Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Treatment: Psychoanalytic
Aim: Reduce defenses and gain insight into hidden intrapsychic conflicts using therapy, free association and transference
Treatment: Humanistic
Aim: Eliminate unrealistic conditions of worth and allow self actualisation using client-centred therapy with empathetic understanding, unconditional positive regard and congruence/integration
Treatment: Behaviour
Aim: change overt maladaptive behaviour using systematic desensitization, flooding, graded exposure, operant conditioning and social learning
Treatment: Cognitive
Aim: change overt behaviour using ABC framework and Cognitive restructuring
Positive Symptoms
More active manifestations of abnormal behaviour or an excess of normal behaviour
Negative Symptoms
The absence or insufficiency of normal behaviour and include emotional and social withdrawal, blunted affect, apathy and poverty of thought and speech
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Hallucinations: experience of sensory events without any input from the surrounding environment
-Delusion: misrepresentation of reality
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Avolition: inability to initiate and persist in activities; apathy
-Alogia: relative absence in the amount of content of speech
- Flat affect: difficulty expressing emotions
-Anhedonia: inability to experience pleasure

DSM Schizophrenia Subtypes

Paranoid Schizophrenia
-mainly positive symptoms
-cognitive skills, affect relatively intact
-do not have disorganised speech or flat affect
-relatively positive prognosis

Disorganised Schizophrenia
-Flat or inappropriate affect
-Show signs of difficulty early and problems are often chronic

Catatonic Schizophrenia
-remain in a fixed position for a length of time
-often display odd mannerisms with their bodies and faces (e.g grimacing)
-often repeat or mimc the words of others (echolalia) or movements (echopraxia)
-cluster of these behaviours are rare

Statistics of Schizophrenia
Males 16-25
0.2-2% of population
Genrally chronic

Biological Causes of Schizo.
-large genetic component
- neurochemical hypothesis; excess dopamine
- neuranatomical hypothesis such as structural abnormalities e.g enlarged ventricles

Psychological Causes of Schiz.
-major stressful life events
-early family instability
-expressed emotion e.g of family

Biological Treatment of Schiz.
-Drug Treatment: Neuroleptics

Psychological Treatment of Schiz
-symptom managment
Bipolar I Disorder
Alternations between full manic episodes and depressive episodes
Bipolar II Disorder
- Alternations between hypomanic episodes and depressive episodes. Average age 22 years
Selective Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibitos
-e.g Prozac
-blocks reuptake of serotonin

Primary drug for bipolar disorders

Deck Info