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chapter 5 bio 101 KD


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covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
glycosidic linkage
hexoses have how many carbons?
what is the structure of the dissacharide lactose?
glucose molecule joined to a galactose molecule

carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups

a polymer of glucose molecules
plants store this to stockpile surplus glucose
true or false-cellulose is never branched
Structure of fat:
1) one molecule of glycerol
2) three molecules of fatty acids, joined by the removal of a water molecule

a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group
ester linkage
why are unsaturated fats liquid at room temp?
the cis double bonding causes kinks in the hydrocarbon chains
where do the double bonds of unsaturated fats come from?
the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton
trans double bonds=
trans fats
structure of phospholipids:
1. two fatty acids attached to glycerol
2. third hydroxyl group joined to phosphate group (negative electrical charge)
3. other small molecules can be linked

hydrocarbon tails of phospholipids are __________ and the phosphate head and attachments are ___________
structure of ___________:
lipids, carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
structure of amino acids:
asymmetric carbon (alpha carbon)
amino group
carboxyl group
hydrogen atom
R-group (DETERMINES the property of amino acid)

Amino acids-
if R group is a variation of H or CH3 (with other bonds) it is a _______molecule
nonpolar-look at page 79
amino acids
if R group is cariation of OH, SH, or NH2 (with other bonds) then the molecule is __________
(look at page 79)
amino acids with nonpolar side chains are __________
amino acids with polar side chains are ________
because they are charged, acidic and basic side chains are also _________
protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins
what comes first, protein or DNA?
DNA in the nucleus programs protein production:
1) synthesis of mRNA in nucleus
2) movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore
3) synthesis of a protein

component of nucleic acid:
1) phosphate group
2) pentose sugar (Deoxyribose or ribose)
3) nitrogenous base (pyrimidines or purines)

adenine paires with _______ and guanine pairs with ________

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