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psych chapter 7 KD


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when the person experiences only depressive episodes
unipolar depressive disorders
what is the criteria for a major depressive episode?
loss of interest in pleasurable activties, markedly depressed for most of every day for two weeks
must show at least three or four other symptoms
abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 4 days
must also have at least three other symptoms
hypomanic episode
persistently depressed mood most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years
also must have 2 or six symptoms (1. poor appetite or overeating 2. insomnia or hypersomnia 3. low energy or fatigue 4. low self-esteem 5. poor concentration or d
dysthymic disorder
diagnosis must be in a major depressive episode, must experience markedly depressed moods or marked loss of interest in pleasurable activities for at least 2 consecutive weeks. must not have had a manic, hypomanic, or mixed episode. but experience three o
major depressive disorder
infant "depression"
anaclitic depression
different patterns of symptoms or features
severe subtype of depression associated with higher genetic loading and is more often associated with history of childhood trauma
major depressive episode with melancholic features
depression accompanied by psychotic symptoms
severe major depressive episode with psychotic features
individuals with _____features may respond better to a different class of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
depression with psychomotor disturbances such as catalepsy, mutism, and rigidity
major depressive episode with catatonic features
two episodes of depression in the past two years occurring at the same time of the year. Person cannot have had other nonseasonal depressive episodes in same two year period
seasonal affective disorder
recurrent major depressive episode with seasonal pattern

people who are moderately depressed on a chronic basis but undergo increased problems from time to time
depression coexisting with dysthymia
double depression
depression was at least sometimes due to an absolute or relative depletion of one or both serotonin and norepinephrine
monoamine theory of depression
sustained elevations in cortisol lead to:
increased CRH activation
increased secretion of ACTH
failure of feedback mechanisms

depressed people show relatively _____ activity in the left hemisphere and relatively ______ activity in the right
suprachiasmatic nucleus
thought to regulate normal sleep-wake cycle
dysfunctional beliefs tgat are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive and that are thought to leave on susceptible to depression when experiencing stress
depressogenic schemas
thoughts that often occur just below the surface of awareness and involve unpleasant pessimistic predictions
negative automatic thoughts
three parts of the negative cognitive triad:
1) negative thoughts about the self
2) negative thoughts about ones experiences and the surrounding world
3) negative thoughts about ones future

example of _______
"if i cant get it 100 percent right, theres no point in doing it at all"
dichotomous or all or none reasoning
jumping to conclusions based on minimal or no evidence
arbitrary evidence
martin seligman
when animals or humans find that they have no control over aversive events, they may learn that they are helpless, which makes them unmotivated to try to respond in the feature
exhibit passivity and depressive symptoms

learned helplessness
three critical dimensions on which attributions are made
1) internal/external
2) global/ specific
3) stable/ unstable

having a pessimistic attributional style in conjunction with one or more negative life events was not sufficient to produce depression unless one first experienced a state of hopelessness
hopelessness theory
a less serious version of full-blown bipolar disorder because it is minus certain extreme symptoms and psychotic features AND the marked impairment
cyclothymic disorder
criteria for bipolar I
1) presence of one or more manic or mixed episode (necessary for diagnosis)
2) presence of one or more major depressive episodes (not necessary for diagnosis)
criteria of Bipolar II disorder:
a person does not experience full-blown manic or mixed episodes but has experienced clear-cut hypomanic episodes, as well as major depressive episodes as in bipolar I disorder

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