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Chapter 6 Biology 101 KD


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visible light passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses the refract (bend) the light so that the image is magnified as it is projected
light microscope
these can magnify about 1000 times the actual size of a specimen
light microscopes
electron beam scans the surface of the sample. Beam excites electrons. Shows 3D image of the surface of a specimen
aims an electron beam through a thin section of the specimen. Uses electromagnets to bend the paths of electrons and focuses the image onto a screen for viewing. Ultrastructure of cell
takes cells apart and separates major organelles and other subcellular structures
cell fractionation
All cells have these features:
1)plasma membrane
2) cytosol
3) chromosomes
4) ribosomes

functions as selective barrier, allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes. Consists of phospholipid bilayer
plasma membrane
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the ______ by mechanically supporting the ______
nuclear lamina
double membrane of lipid bilayers and association proteins with perforated pore structures
nuclear envelope
a mass of densely stained granules and fibers ajoining part of the chromatin. Ribosomal RNA is synthesized here
endomembrane system consists of:
1) endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
3) transport vesicles

structures of the endomembrane system:
1) endoplasmic reticulum
2) transport vesicles
3) glycoproteins
4) golgi apparatus
5) lysosomes
6) vacuoles

reservoir for liquids
an extensive network of membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope
endoplasmic reticulum
synthesis of lipids
metabolism of carbohydrates
detoxification of drugs and poisons

functions of the smooth ER
adding hydroxyl groups to make ___ more soluble
detoxification, drug molecules
stores calcium ions-when a muscle cell is stimulated by a nerve impulse, calcium ions rush back across the _____membrane into the cytosol and trigger contractions of ______cells
smooth ER, ER, muscle
would insulin be secreted by a free or bound protein?
bound-pancreatic cells synthesize insulin on the ER and secrete hormone into bloodstream
proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
generally are ______proteins
polypeptides destined to be membrane proteins are anchored onto ER membrane by what?
hydrophobic portions
cisternae of the golgi actually progress forward from the cis face to the trans face of the Golgi
cisternal maturation model
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules
work best in acidic conditions
made by rough ER and transferred to golgi apparatus

______ vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis
______ Have two membranes separating their innermost space from the cytosol
_______ which have three membranes separating their innermost space from the cytosol

what is the structure of mitochondrion membranes?
phospholipid bilayer
two membranes
outer membrane=smooth
inner membrane=convoluted, with cristae
inner membrane divides mitochondrion into two internal departments

what are the two internal compartments of mitochondrion?
1) intermembrane space-narrow region
2) mitochondrial matrix-the compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle
chloroplast structure=
flattened interconnected sacs called ______
(sacs from above) stacked like poker chips; each stack called _______

fluid outside the thylakoid, contains chloroplast DNA and ribosomes and enzymes
contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various subtrates to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product
use oxygen to break fatty acids down into smaller molecules
detoxify alcohol and others by transferring hydrogen from the poisons to oxygen; organelle contains enzyme that converts H2O2 to water
contain enzymes that initiate the conversion of fatty acids to sugar

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