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Comparative Cognition Study


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classical conditioning
The procedure of pairing an initially neutral stimulus (the CS) with an unconditioned stimulus; as a result the CS develops the ability to elicit a conditioned response. (Something that starts out as a reflexive response to a stimulus [US] starts to be elicited by a new, initially ineffective stimulus after that stimulus [CS] is frequently paired with the US.)
The technique - repeatedly presenting the CS without the US - for producing a reduction and eventual disappearance of the CR.
The transfer of effects of conditioning to similar stimuli. After CC with 1 CS, other similar stimuli never before paired with the US will also elicit the CR. The more similar the other stimuli are to the CS, the greater its ability to evoke the CR.
stop-action principle
The precise behaviors (movements) occurring at moment of reinforcement delivery are the ones whose association with the situation are strengthened (and are more likely to occur in the future)
superstition experiment
Famous experiment by Skinner where food was delivered to pigeons in an experimental chamber every 15 seconds regardless of what they were doing. Most pigeons developed distinctive behaviors that they repeatedly performed in between food presentations
Premack Principle
A way to identify a positive reinforcer. this principle states that a higher frequency behavior will function as reinforcement for a lower frequency behavior.
Backward Chaining
The process of starting with conclusions and working backward to the supporting facts
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that automatically triggers a response (the food in mouth causes the dog to salivate)
unconditioned response (UCR)
the unlearned naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) (the dog salivating as a response to the food in the mood)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originially irrelevant stimulus that, after association with a UCS comes to trigger a conditioned response; not natural, the response we made (bell causes the dog to salivate)
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response to a previously netural conditioned stimulus (CS) (the dog salivating to the tone)
Intelligence Heritability
Identical (living together and not) fraternal twins, siblings, adopted siblings. looked at correlations. Average of 50% of variation is explained by genes. as much as 80% when older.
Conger and Killeen - Study in conversation
Study of the matching law was extended to humans. Ppts delivered reinforcement statements in direct proportion to the number of statements made by the confederate. This is seen as an example of the matching law in humans
Undermatching is reduced sensitivity of the choice behavior to the relative rates of reinforcement.
Overmatching is when the relative rate of responding is more sensitive to relative rate of reinforcement than what is predicted by perfect matching.
Negative reinforcement
a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition.
negative punishment
when something desired is taken away as a consequence of a certain behavior

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