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BioPsy Ch 14 & 16


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Through what paths is the ANS able to respond primarily to the hypothalamus?
Either directly or by way of the nucleus of the solitary tract, a structure located in the medulla that participates in control of the ANS
The pathway connecting the amygdala with the thalamus, which receives input from most sensory systems enroute to the cortex does what?
Provides rapid evaluation of emotional significance of a stimulus
What is the system connected by the MFB, which contains the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area with higher forebrain structures, called?
Mesolimbic system
Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus
Receives input from the amygdala and makes connections with the locus coeruleus, the spinal cord, and the pituitary gland and releases CRH and vasopressin
What do typical antipsychotic medication act on?

Block D(2) dopamine receptor

What effect does lithium have?
-Levels out mood fluctuations
-Appears to promote hippocampus neurogenesis
-Does not affect serotonin levels directly, but does influence activity of related 2nd messengers and enzymes
-Decreases norepinephrine activity by decreasing reuptake

What are the side effects of lithium? What other meds are used to avoid these effects?
Toxicity and unpleasant side effects. SSRIs, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsant mood stabilizer are also used.
What describes the genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders?
There is a genetic basis but the type of anxiety disorder will vary.
What brain structures are involved with generating fear in the face of danger?
Pathways connecting the brainstem, the amygdala, decision-making areas of the frontal lobes
Where are abnormalities in the brain found that relate to anxiety disorder?
Those related to generating fear in the face of danger and the HPA axis
How do serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA agonists probably achieve antianxiety effects?
GABA agonists enhance inhibitory effects of GABA at the synapse; all participate in the management of anxiety.
Where are benzodiazepine receptors common?
Places associated with danger assessment, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex
How are anxiety disorders treated?
Combines medications with CBT to help person learn to manage reactions to anxiety
How is PTSD treated?
CBT; Propranol (blocks effects of glucocortoids in the brain, which could prevent PTSD when administered immediately following a traumatic event)
What nonstimulant is prescribed in cases of OCD?
Atonoxetine, which is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Decreased catecholamines results in what in MDD?
Lack of concentration/attention
Lithium may have what effect?
Increase fatty acid and reduce swelling in the brain
What is also used to cases of anxiety disorders?
Deep brain stimulation

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