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PLT Study Guide


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Cooperative learning
students working in small groups * is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it.
Direct instruction
a general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning.
Discovery learning
free exploration of data and experiences *Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction, discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves. As a result, students may be more more likely to remember concepts and knowledge discovered on their own (in contrast to a transmissionist model). Models that are based upon discovery learning model include: guided discovery, problem-based learning, simulation-based learning, case-based learning, incidental learning, among others.
Whole-group discussion
a modified form of classroom lecture where the focus is shared between the instructor and the students for information transfer.
Independent Study
Student sets own mode of study with goals
Interdisciplinary instruction
a method, or set of methods, used to teach a unit across different curricular disciplines. Integrated instruction also allows for authentic assessment
Concept Mapping
a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts
Inquiry Method
gathering facts and observations to investigate real world problems * student-centered method of education focused on asking questions. good learners and sound reasoners center their attention and activity on the dynamic process of inquiry itself, not merely on the end product of static knowledge
Major categories of instructional strategies include:
Cooperative learning
Direct instruction
Discovery learning
Whole-group discussion
Independent Study
Interdisciplinary instruction
Concept Mapping
Inquiry Method

The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. Pedagogy is also occasionally referred to as the correct use of instructive strategies
The breadth and depth of content to be covered in a curriculum at any one time (e.g. week, term, year, over a student’s school life).All that you do in a given period.
The order in which content is presented to learners over time. The order in which you do it.
Scope and Sequence Frameworks
Together a scope and sequence of learning bring order to the delivery of content, supporting the maximizing of student learning and offering sustained opportunities for learning. Without a considered scope and sequence there is the risk of ad hoc content delivery and the missing of significant learning.
Schemas are concepts built in the mind based on conclusions drawn from our experiences. Piaget called these processes assimilation and accommodation
Accommodation refers to the adjustment of information previously stored to meet the particulars of new and different situations
Albert Bandura
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. Bandura believed in “reciprocal determinism”, that is, the world and a person’s behavior cause each other, while behaviorism essentially states that one’s environment causes one’s behavior
Jerome Bruner
Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction, discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves.
Discovery learning is an inquiry method-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned
Constructivist Theory
Bruner - A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
John Dewey
Project-based learning (PBL): best defined as instruction relating questions and technology relative to the students everyday lives to classroom projects. Students take a problem and apply it to a real life situation with these projects.
Jean Piaget
Stage Theory of Cognitive Development - children learn through actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience - is a description of cognitive development as four distinct stages in children: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal.
Sensorimotor stage
Stage 1 in Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Birth to 2 years old) - Learning takes place via assimilation (the organization of information and absorbing it into existing schema) and accommodation (when an object cannot be assimilated and the schemata have to be modified to include the object).
Lev Vygotsky
children learn through hands-on experience, but unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the "zone of proximal development") could help children learn new tasks. This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn
Social Development Theory
(Vygotsky) argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. theory is one of the foundations of constructivism - It asserts three major themes:
1. Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.
2. More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner
3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.

Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences Theory - posits that there are seven ways people understand in the world, described by Gardner as seven intelligences:
* Linguistic. The ability to use spoken or written words.
* Logical-Mathematical. Inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning abilities, logic, as well as the use of numbers and abstract pattern recognition.
* Visual-Spatial. The ability to mentally visualize objects and spatial dimensions.
* Body-Kinesthetic. The wisdom of the body and the ability to control physical motion
* Musical-Rhythmic. The ability to master music as well as rhythms, tones and beats.
* Interpersonal. The ability to communicate effectively with other people and to be able to develop relationships.
* Intrapersonal. The ability to understand one’s own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self-reflection.

Abraham Maslow
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a hierarchy.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
top * Self-actualization – morality, creativity, problem solving, etc. Maslow states that learning takes place here

* Esteem – includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect, etc.

* Belongingness – includes love, friendship, intimacy, family, etc.

* Safety – includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property, etc.

bottom * Physiological – includes air, food, water, sex, sleep, other factors towards homeostasis, etc.

B.F. Skinner
Behaviorism - is a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior is caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.
Erik Erikson
Erikson’s Stages of Development
- An eight stage theory of identity and psychosocial development
Erikson’s Stages of Development
1. Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt
4. School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion
6. Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption
8. Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair

posits that learning is an active, constructive process - Originators and important contributors: Vygotsky, Piaget, Dewey, Bruner

Keywords: Learning as experience; Problem Based Learning (PBL); Anchored instruction; Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD); cognitive apprenticeship (scaffolding); inquiry and discovery learning.

defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing." - includes knowledge about when and where to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving
Readiness - Maturationist Theory
the work of Arnold Gessell. Maturationists believe that development is a biological process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time
Readiness - Constructivist Theory
Jean Piaget, Maria Montessori, and Lev Vygotsky - consistent in their belief that learning and development occur when young children interact with the environment and people around them - view young children as active participants in the learning process - children initiate most of the activities required for learning and development.
introduced in the late 1950s by Jerome Bruner - defined as the provision of sufficient support to promote learning when concepts and skills are being first introduced to students - supports may include the following:

* Resources
* A compelling task
* Templates and guides
* Guidance on the development of cognitive and social skills

These supports are gradually removed as students develop autonomous learning strategies, thus promoting their own cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning skills and knowledge.

Scaffolding is often used in order to support problem-based learning (PBL)

Zone of proximal development
Lev Vygotsky - the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help
Watson, Skinner & Pavlov
- Basic idea: Stimulus-response. All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.
- Learner viewed as: Passive, responds to environmental stimuli.
- Behavior may result in reinforcement (increased likelihood that behavior will occur in the future); or punishment.

Replaced behaviorism in 1960s as dominant paradigm. Noam Chomsky
- Basic idea: Mental function can be understood
- Learner viewed as: Information processor
- Cognitivism focuses on inner mental activities — opening the “black box” of the human mind. It is necessary to determine how processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving occur. People are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings whose action are a consequence of thinking.
- Metaphor of mind as computer: information comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes.

Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers
- Basic idea: Learning is a personal act to fulfill one’s potential.
- Learner viewed as: One with affective and cognitive needs.
- Emphasis on the freedom, dignity, and potential of humans.
- Learning is student-centered and personal, facilitated by teachers, with the goal of developing self-actualized people in a cooperative, supportive environment.

Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old) - The infant builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality (and how things work) through interactions with the environment.
Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 4). The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways, especially by important features.
Concrete operations (ages 7 to 11). As physical experience accumulates, accomodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences.
Formal operations (beginning at ages 11 to 15). Cognition reaches its final form. By this stage, the person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. He or she is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. His or her ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult.

Classical conditioning
In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus (such as a bell) that at first prompts no response becomes paired w/an unconditioned stimulus (such as meat) and gains the power of that stimulus to cause a response (such as salivation).
Operant conditioning
The use of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to change behavior is often referred to as operant conditioning.

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