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Ethics Test 4 Terms


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right of an individual to make his or her own independent decisions
DNR (Do Not Resuscitate)
indicate that in the event of a cardiac or respiratory arrest, no resuscitative measures should be used to revive the patient
branch of philosophy that deals with values relating to human conduct with respect to the rightness and wrongness of actions and the goodness and badness of motives and ends.
ethics committee
A committee created to deal with ethical problems and dilemmas in the delivery of patient care
active euthanasia
the intentional commission of an act, such as giving a patient a lethal drug that results in death.
passive euthanasia
when life-saving treatment is withdrawn or withheld,
allowing the patient diagnosed as terminal to die a natural death.
instrumental value
something that helps to give value to something else
intrinsic value
something that has in and of itself
Living will
defined as a document in which an individual expresses in advances his or her wishes regarding the application of life sustaining treatment in the event that he or she is incapable of doing so at some future time. A living will describes in advance the kind of care one wants to receive or does not wish to receive in the event that he or she is unable to make decisions for himself or herself. A living will takes effect when a person is in a terminal condition or permanent state of unconsciousness.

medical paternalism
making choices for patients who are capable of making their own choices. Physicians will selectively tell the patient what he or she prefers based on personal beliefs.

moral value
the relative worth placed on some virtuous behavior
code of conduct. It is a guide to behavior that governs the behavior of all rational people. Morality describes a class of rules held by society to govern the conduct of its individual members. There is no universal morality since what is considered morally right can vary from person to person, religion to religion, nation to nation, and culture to culture.
organizational ethics
promotes responsible behavior and to make sure that unethical practices are not plaquing the industry
power of attorney
a legal device that permits one individual, known as the "principal", to give to another person, called the "attorney-in-fact," the authority to act on his or her behalf.
protects the rights of patients to make their own decisions regarding their own health care. The patient has the right to accept or refuse medical or surgical treatment and the right to formulate advanced directives
situational ethics
This concept revolves around the "right thing to do" and comes to play in difficult situations.
a standard of conduct. Values are used for judging the goodness or badness of some action
defined as some sort of moral excellence or beneficial quality.
voluntary euthanasia
occurs when the suffering incurable patient makes a decision to die. It is only voluntary if the request or consent is made by a legally competent adult and is based on material information concerning the possible alternatives available.

involuntary euthanasia
occurs when a person other than the incurable makes the decision to terminate the life of an incompetent or a non-consenting competent person’s life. There are many questions one must answer regarding who must decide and when it should happen.

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