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bio 212 final


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structure/function relationship
-structure determines function
-natural selection acts on these relationships
-Natural selection acts within physical laws & environmental constraints

universal principles of physiology
-structure/function relationship

-the maintenance of a constant internal environment
-environment affects macromolecule structure (proteins)
-homeostatic mechanisms (regulation, signaling, feedback)
-degree of regulation varies

systems used for regulation, feedback, and signaling
signaling molecule
how to get high diffusion rate
-higher A
-higher change p
-lower d

how body plans meet challenge of diffusion
-diffusion distance kept small
-circulatory systems for animals
-body plans act to control surface area

vertebrate tissues

epithelial tissues
-cellular boundary between inside and outside of body
-all substances entering/leaving body must pass through epithelial
functions of epithelial

muscle tissue
-motors of animal body
-abundance of protein filaments that effect movement
nervous tissue
-senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal
-contains neurons & glial cells
-nerve cells; transmit nerve impulses
glial cells
-help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons
animal energetics
-flow of energy through an animal
animals as consumers
-gains: food
-losses: heat, locomotion, growth, reproduction
Metabolic rate (MR)
-energy animal uses per unit time
-unit of energy
functions of digestive systems

types of digestive systems
-gastrovascular cavity
gastrovascular cavity
-one opening
-Cnidarians, flatworms

-two openings (mouth & anus)
-specialized areas
-many inverts & all verts

parts of digestive system
-salivary glands
-gall bladder
-small intestine
-large intestine

-often convoluted
-secretes mucus

circular & longitudinal muscle
-antagonistic smooth muscle pair
-can perform peristalsis
-muscular action & teeth break up food
saliva from salivary glands
-lubricates food
-secretion of sugar-digesting enzyme
-moves food to stomach via peristalsis
stomach; structure
-highly convoluted
stomach; function
-secretion (HCl & protein-digesting enzyme)
-some digestion
-muscular churning: breaks up food

pancreas; structure
-exocrine gland: invaginated epithelium & duct
pancreas; function
-production of digestive enzymes & bicarbonate
-secreted into duct
liver; structure
-exocrine gland
liver; function
-secretion of bile
-salts & pigments
gall bladder
-bile storage sac
small intestine; structure

-highly vascularized
-folding of plasma membrane
small intestine; function
-absorption (water and digested food)
large intestine; structure
-large diameter
-low surface area
large intestine; function
-concentration of waste by water absorption
complexity of digestion
-many hormones involved
-sense progress of digestion
-signals initiate downstream processes (gastrin, CCK, secretin)
-negative feedback

-promotes secretion
-triggers enzyme release
-triggers bicarb release
homeostasis central to nutrition involves

-blind sac at entrance of large intestine
-in herbivores: site for symbiotic microbes (high digestion of plant cell walls)
ruminant herbivores
-4 chambered stomach
-Chamber for fermentation by symbionts
-regurgitate & ruminate
-result: thorough digestion of plant material

-chew cud
gut symbioses
-ruminant herbivores
types of circulatory systems
-gastrovascular cavities
-open circulation
-closed circulation

open circulatory system
-hemolymph moves through vessels and extracellular spaces
-most molluscs & arthropods
-kind of equal to blood
closed circulatory system
-blood circulated entirely in vessels
-annelids, cephalopods, vertebrates
function of vertebrates circulatory system
-transport (gases, metabolites, wastes)
-regulation (transport of hormones & thermoregulation)
-protection (clotting: maintenance & immunity)

components of vertebrate blood
-blood cells
-55% of blood
-solutes (ions, metabolites, wastes, hormones, proteins)

blood cells
-45% of blood
-Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
-white blood cells (leukocytes)

-contain hemoglobin
-function: gas exchange & transport

-oxygen binding protein
-1% of cells
-different types
-function: immunity & defense

-cell bits: pinch off from cells in marrow
-function: clotting
sphincter muscle
-close capillary beds
close beds to..
-direct flow elsewhere
-control blood pressure

types vessels

interstitial fluid
-plasma leaking into interstitial spaces
-artery pressure high (forces fluid out of capillaries)
-85% of fluid re-enters capillaries by osmosis

connections with lymphatic system
-interstitial fluid
-excess fluid (lymph) drains into lymphatic system
-cardiac muscle
heart; function
-pump blood through vessels in body
heart; structure

-chamber collecting blood from veins
-muscular pumping chamber
-closeable flaps between chambers
2 chamber hearts
3 chamber hearts
amphibians & reptiles
4 chamber hearts
-mammals & birds
-uptake of oxygen from environment and disposal of CO2 into environment
echinoderm gills
-dermal gills (high area)
-gas exchange across 2 thin epithelia (low diffusion distance)
-epithelia ciliated (high change p)

fish gills; structure
-operculum (gill cover)
-buccal cavity
-opercular cavity

fish gills
-water movement one way
-countercurrent exchange maximizes diffusion
insect tracheal system
-series of rigid tubes (trachae) lined by exoskeleton
-trachea reach every cell
-closeable spiracles to lower water loss
-movement largely via diffusion
-circulatory system not involved
-good system for small body size

-expandable, internalized sacs supported by body
-covered in membrane
-lie in thoracic cavity
-connected to outside by tubes
-supported by cartilage

-bronchioles branch into blind-ended sacs
-highly vascularized
-site of gas exchange

-contraction of diaphragm (moves down)
-rib muscles contract
-occurs via negative pressure

-thorax and lungs elastic
-relax muscles
bird lung
-1 way flow through lung
-air sacs and lungs
-lungs only site of gas exchange
-no mixing (more efficient)

partial pressure
-measure of gas quantity
3 ways to transport CO2
-hemoglobin picks up CO2 and H+
-removal of bicarbonate
-diffuses into blood plasma

osmotic homeostasis
-solutes and water must be maintained within narrow limits in body
-different environments present different challenges
-the concentration of all solutes in a fluid
-inorganic, charged ions (Na+, Cl-)
-organic, uncharged (glucose, amino acids)

osmotic concentration of fluids
-mammalian plasma=300

-organisms that allow osmolarity of fluids to conform with environment
problem with osmoconformers
-ionic osmolytes destablizing to macromolecules
-solution: use uncharged organic molecules as osmolytes
-organic osmolyte that protects proteins from urea
-organisms maintaining and actively regulating an osmolarity different from the environment
problem with bony fish in seawater
-constantly losing water to seawater
solutions for bony fish constantly losing water
-drink lots of water
-produce little urine
-excrete salts, across gills and in urine

problem with bony fish in freshwater
-constantly gaining water from environment
solutions for bony fish gaining water
-drink no water
-uptake ions in gills
-produce copious dilute urine

problem with terrestrial animals & osmoregulating
-threat of desiccation in air
solutions to terrestrial animals
-reduce water loss
-water conservation in excretory organs

-disposal of nitrogenous waste
function of excretory organs
-perform excretion
-maintain water balance
types of nitrogenous wastes
-ammonia (fish)
-urea (mammals and sharks)
-uric acid (reptiles & birds)

general characteristics of excretory system
-all systems have same general function
-forms are highly diverse
-water and solutes forced by pressure across membranes into tubule
-valuable substance return to blood
-other substances extracted from body
malphighian tubules
-present in insects & spiders
-superb water conservation
-uric acid out with feces

vertebrate kidney
-renal cortex (outside)
-renal medulla (inside)
-made up of a network of nephrons

components of nephron
-proximal tubule
-distal tubule
-loop of henle (looping tubule)
-vasa recta (capillary net)
-collecting duct

glomerulus function
-filtration of:
*actual* glomerulus funtion
-filtration of:

loop of henle function
-active and passive reabsorption of water and salt
collecting duct function
-reabsorption and excretion
nerve nets
-brain absent
central nervous system (CNS)
-nerve cords
CNS & peripheral nervous system (PNS)
-nerve cords

sensory cells
-diverse and present in cnidarians to humans
diversity in nervous system organization..
-correlates with lifestyle
sensory input
-receptor detects stimuli
-external (light, sound)
-internal (blood pressure, muscle tension)

-integrate: analyze and interpret
-communicate with effector cells
-muscles->effect movement
nerve tissue
-schwann cells
-supportive cells

neuron structure
-cell body
-schwann cells

-space between cells
-site of cell-cell communication
Neuron structure #2
-form varies with function
impulse transmission ungated ion channels
-always open
-allow ions to pass through membranes
impulse transmission gated ion channels
-open and close in response to stimuli
-3 types (stretch, chemical, voltage)
resting potential
-all cells have membrane potential
-electrical charge different across membranes
-membrane is polarized
-maintained by active & passive transport, ungated channels and pumps

resting potential in neurons
-inside negative
-outside positive

action potential
-transmits signal down axon
-signal from changed polarization of membrane
-self propagating, directional

action potential and myelinated nerves
-impulses travel faster by jumping between schwann cells
synapses (process)
-action potential arrives
-synaptic vessels fuse with membrane
-neurotransmitter binds chemical gated channel
-channel opens
-ions rush in
-impulse propagated
-neurotransmitter released and crosses cleft

somatic nervous system
-signals to and from skeletal muscles
-response to external stimuli
autonomic nervous system
-signals to and from cardiac and smooth muscle and endocrine system
-response to internal stimuli
-important in homeostasis

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