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Anatomy 1-6


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What is the purpose of the platelets or thrombocytes?
Clot formation
What does an adductor do?
Bends a limb toward the median line.
If the waste produced during work/exercise is not removed from the muscle, what is the result?
Stiffness and pain.
Describe the difference between tendons and ligaments.
Tendons: Bands that connect bone to muscle. Tendons repair quickly.

Ligaments: Connects bone to bone or cartilage. Repairs very slowly.

Muscles always work in pairs. What are these pairs called?
1. Agonist
2. Antagonist
Describe muscle tone.
The stress or tension caused by the continual conflict between the agonist and antagonist.
Describe a typical voluntary muscle.
1. We have conscious control
2. Responsible for skeletal balance/movement
3. Striated muscle
4. Sudden bursts of movement for short periods of time

There are three pairs of salivary glands. What are they?
1. Parotid gland
2. Sublingual gland
3. Submandibular gland

What are the 4 primary tastes?

The liver removes a yellow pigment called what?
Name 4 purposes of the lymph nodes.
1. Filter lymph
2. Destroy foreign matter
3. Produce lymphocytes
4. Produce antibodies

Describe the cardiac muscle.
Composed of mostly involuntary muscle fibre but bears a superficial resemblance to voluntary muscle, in that there is some poorly defined striation. It makes up most of the heart and is only found in the heart.
What are the 2 types of muscles and how are they controlled?
1. Voluntary muscles are under conscious control
2. Involuntary muscles are without conscious control
What are the 4 threats to your immune system?
1. Parasites
2. Viruses
3. Bacteria
4. Fungi

What are the 5 classifications of bones? Name and provide an example of each.
1. Long bone (femur)
2. Short bone (carpal bones)
3. Flat bone (frontal skull bone)
4. Irregular bone (vertebrae)
5. Sesamoid bone (patella)

What are the 4 functions of the skeleton?
1. Protection
2. Locomotion
3. Production of red and white blood cells
4. Storage of some minerals such as calcium and phosphorous

What are osteoclasts?
Cells that secrete enzymes that dissolve and digest bone.
What are osteoblasts?
Cells that produce bone
What are the 2 types of exocrine glands?
1. Sebaceous glands
2. Sudoriferous glands
What are the 2 types of heat control?
1. Absorption
2. Release
Name 5 substances that can penetrate the skin.
1. Gases
2. Oxygen and carbon dioxide
3. Essential oils
4. Fat soluble vitamins
5. Phenol derivatives

Although the skin appears to be a solid barrier, what allows entry of some drugs and chemicals?
Hair follicles, glands, pimples, boils, acne, etc
Describe dry skin type.
Coarse and pore-less appearance with fine lines, especially around the eyes and mouth.
Describe oily skin type.
Shiny, thick, firm appearance. Tendancy to develop blackheads, whiteheads and enlarged pores. Skin looks dirty and neglected. Generally shiny and sallow.
Describe normal skin type.
Perfect hydration, muscle tone, and resilience. Soft, moist, plump, dewy. Healthy glow and colour.
True/false: The skin is considered one of the main detoxifying organs of the body.
What are the 2 extensions of the skin?
1. Hair
2. Nails
What are the 3 distinct layers of the skin?
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
3. Subcutaneous layer

The skin is an important organ. What are the 4 primary functions?
1. Receives information about the outside world
2. Regulates body temperature via perspiration and shivering
3. Provides waterproof covering for the body
4. Provides protection against invading pathogens

What are the names of the 2 principal circuits of circulation?
1. pulmonary circulation
2. general circulation
Which actions assist in the lymph returning to the heart?
Breathing and muscle contractions
What is the function of "peyers patches"?
to fight infection
eventually all lymph passes into which two principal lymph vessels?
Right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct
The pancreas secretes
enzymes and hormones
What is peristalsis?
The movement of food along the digestive track made possible by the wave-like motion made by the smooth muscles of the digestive system
What is the function of the muscles?
To permit movement to the skeleton
In which direction does lymph travel?
Toward the heart
Name the 4 principal constituent parts of blood.
1. Plasma
2. Erythrocytes
3. Leukocytes
4. Thrombocytes

White corpuscles are also known as?
The gallbladder produces what?
The gallbladder produces nothing.
What are the 6 main functions of the liver?
1. formation of bile
2. powerful detoxifying organ
3. reservoir for blood
4. removes bilirubin from the blood
5. Stores vitamins E,B,A,K
6. Storage for digested carbohydrates in the form of glycogen

What are the functions of the circulatory system?
1. Transport oxygen and nutrients to cells
2. Removes metabolic waste from cells and tissues
3. Carries hormones from one part of the body to another

What is the wall that divides the left side of the heart from the right side called?
What is its purpose?
Inter-ventricular septum
It keeps the oxygenated blood from mixing with the non-oxygenated blood
What do the islets of langerhans do?
They are specialized cells in the pancreas. They produce insulin and glucagon.
Describe diastolic and systolic pressure.
Diastolic: taken at rest
Systolic: taken at full pulse
What are the 2 functions of the digestive system?
1. To process food
2. To eliminate waste from the body
What are the lymph functions?
1. Production and movement of lymphocytes throughout the body
2. Drainage of interstitial fluid back into general circulation
What does the mentalis muscle do?
Raises and pushes the lower lip, causing wrinkling of the chin, as in doubt or displeasure
Where would you find the trapezius? What is its function?
Across the shoulder area. It rotates inferior angle of scapula laterally, raises the shoulder and draws scapula backwards.

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