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Psych 100 (OSUN) Exam 3


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-Detecting physical information from the enviroment
- Encoding it as neural signals

-Oranizing and interpreting our sensations
-Diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus
-Ex. jump into cold pool but after 5 minutes you adapt
-Why? Nerve cells fire less often

Sensory adaption
If our sensitivity diminshes, why does an unchanging visual stimyls (image) not vanish if we star at it?
-Eyes move (quiver), so that the image stays new
- Sensory receptors are alert to novelty
-Allows our attention to shift from boring things toward new more important things

transformation of light energy into neural messages
Processes the neural messages into what we consiously see.
What we see?
Electromagnetic energy
Percieve energy as color
A part of the electromagnetic spectrum

Distance from one wave peak to next = hue color
Color is our sensory system is interpretation of these wavelengths
Amount of energy in waves (height) = brightness
How is light energy transformed in neural message ?
Light enters the eye through the cornea, pupil and lens
The lens focuses light energy into an image on the retina
back interior lining
Holds vision receptors cells
Recpetor cells convert light energy into neural impulses

Visions receptors cells are located in the
Two kinds of cell receptors
Cones and Rods
Cones =
Color vision
night vision
Cones are:
Color, accuracy, detail, used in well-lit situations concentrated on fovea (center of retina)
Rods are:
used in dim-light, peripheral vision provide fuzzier image, Spread out on retina
Reduce response to light
trigger action potentials in optic nerve
Cones and Rods
brings visual information to brain
Optic nerve
area on the retina, insensitive to light, point where neural bibers leave the eyeball to form the optic nerve
Blind Spot
Feature Detectors
neurons in visual cortex
respond to specific features

The consious represntation of the eternal enviroment
Gestat = from or whole
Gestalt Psych
Detection of sensory info
Integration of separate prieces of sensory information
Sensation = Bottom up Process
Higher-level mental processes
constructs perceptions based on experience and expections
Perception = top-down perception
Attracts attention
elements near each other are part of the same group
elements that resemble each other are part of the same group
Tend to see forms as enclosed by a border and ignore gaps
Tend to group lines so they are continuous, with minimal change in direction
Elements that are uniform and linked are percieved as a single
We tend to favor regularity in shape and structure
Good form
Binocular cues
2 eyes to do this
Retinal disparity
Slightly different view the two eyes have on the same object or scene
(The closer an object the more different view you get from each eye)
Monocular cues for depth
Near objects (closer) block more distant ones
Small image more distant
relative size
Those objects positioned closer to the horizon appear farther away
relative height in a scene
Parallel lines converge with distance
Linear perspective
Percieveing objects as unchanging despite changes in the retinal image
Shape constancy
Sixe constancy

Perceptual constancy
A relatively permanet change in behavior due to experience
Learning that certain events occur together
important that we learn + adopt
Associative Learning
the process of learning associations
a neural stimulus evokes a response after being paired Associated with a stimuls that naturally evokes a responce
- Child may learn to fear morving cars Dog may learn to salivate at the sound of tone
Classical Conditioning
Learn to associate your own actions with consequences
operant conditioning
Behavior is stengthened by
Behavior is deminished by
Nueral Stimulus -->
No response
Uncondtioned Stimulus
Unconditioned Response
Conditioned Response
Process of initial leaning of the stimulus - response relationship
Best learning happens in x time period
short period of time
Will learning occur if the food comes before the ringing of the bell?
Not usually
Bell doesnt mean food comeing now
Conditioning helps prepare for good/bad events

Stimulus similiar to the original CS can elicit the Conditioned response
Learning can be stopped by
discrimination training
As an individual experiences the CS (tone) without the UCS (food) the less the individual responds with the CR (salivation)
The reappearance, after a rest period of an exticnt condtitioned responses
-sometimes Pavlov would see the salvation come bac with an extinct tone
Not total elimination of CR

Spontaneous recovery
Animals learn to "expect how likely the UCS (food) will appear
based on the frquency and pairings of various conditioned stimuli
Cognitive processes
Animals are biologically predispoed to learn associations beneficial to their survival
Peculiar tast + Future sickness
(CR can happen much later, some enviromental stimuli can trigger more than others

Biological Predisoitions
Little Albert
Neutral Stimulus
rat --> baby no fear
Unconditioned Stimulus
Break lass -- baby has fear
Generalization : Little Albert : Rabbits
He was afraid of rabbits, can be stopped by discrimination training
Often lose ability to learn new info , remmember old info, recognixe objects/ people
Impaired writing, speech or mor activities
Disorientation is time and space, declines inn personal hygiene, inappropriate social behavior

Symptoms of Dementia
Dementia effects X perecentage of people over 65
Accounts for 70% of all dementias
Higher pervalence in women
Low education, lower occupations increases risk

Alzheimers disease
an individual associates different stimuli that it doesnt control
Classical Condtioning
Classical Condtitioning requires a
Actions Operate on the world to get an effect
Operant Behavior
Law of Effect : Cats
Law of Effect states
Behavior folled by favorable consequences become more likely
Actions are controlled by their
explored how we can control behaviro using various behaviroal technologgies
Skinner taught...
Rats and Pigeons
Use reinforcerers to guide actions towards the target. desired behavior
any event (food) that follows a response (pusing lever) and makes the response MORE likely to happen again
Primary Reinforcers
Not learned
Innate reinforcing
Satisfy Biological need

Immediate Reinforcers
presenting reward immediatly after behaviro
Delayed Reinforcers
may e effective for some animals over others
Humans often work hard for payoff the end of the month
Trophy at the end of the season

Continuous reinfrocement
desired response is always reinforced continuall reinforced rapid learning If reinforcement stopped = rapid extinction
parial reinforcement
denied response is not always reinforced slower=inital learning
prociures greater resitaance to extintion
ex. Slot matchine

Fixed raito =
Specific bumber of responses
Assembly line worker x amound of product to get paid
Burst of responses,tiring

Variable- Raitio =
reinforces response after an unpredicatable number of responses
Shooting baskets, gambling, fishing
Fixed Interval
Fixed time perido
study at test time, reinforced by getting grades
Choppy start and stop pattern

Variable Interval
unpredicatble time period
rechecking email, calling busy number
slow steady resonse

Latent Learning
Larning that is not apparent until there is on incentive to deomonstrate it
Undermining intricsic motivation
rewarking natural enhoyable behaviors can backfire
Oraganisms are predisposed to learn naturally adaptive associations
Biological Predispostiions

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