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nutr 240 chap 8 and 9


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primary functions of thiamin
part of coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) involved in carb metabolism, coenzyme involved in branched chain amino acids metabolism.
recommended intake of thiamin
19 yrs and older-
male=1.2 mg/day
female=1.1 mg/day

deficiency symptoms from lack of thiamin
beriberi, anorexia and weightloss, apathy, decreased short term memory, irritability, muscle weakness, enlarged heart
primary functions of riboflavin
involved with coenzyme flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), involved in oxidation-reduction reactions for metabolism of carbs and fats.
recommended intake of riboflavin
19 yrs and older-
male=1.3 mg/day
female=1.1 mg/day

deficiency symptons caused from lack of riboflavin
deficiency symptoms from lack of riboflavin
ariboflavinosis, sore throat, swelling of mouth and throat, cheilosis, angular stomatitis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis, anemia.
primary functions of niacin
part of coenzymes in carbs and fatty acid metabolism, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ and NADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+),plays role in DNA replication and repair and cell differentiation.
recommended intake for niacin
19 yrs and older-
male= 16 mg/day
female= 14 mg/day

deficiency symptoms from lack of niacin
pellagra, pigmented rash, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, bright red tongue, depression, apathy, headache, fatigue, loss of memory.
primary functions of vitamin B6
part of coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) involved in amino acid metabolism synthesis of blood cells, and carb metabolism. Involved in metabolism of homocysteine.
Recommended intake for Vitamin B6
19 to 50 yrs old
deficiency symptoms from lack of vitamin B6
seborrheic dematitis, microcytic anemia, convulsions, and depression and confusion.
primary functions of folate
involved in coenzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF), involved in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism, involved in metabolism of homocysteine.
recommended intake of folate
19 years and older
male/female= 400 ug/day
deficiency symptoms from lack of folate
macrocytic anemia, weakness and fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, palpitations, shortness of breath, elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood, neural tube defects in the developing fetus
primary functions of Vitamin B12
part of coenzymes that assist with the formation of blood, nervous system function, and homocysteine metabolism
recommended intake for Vitamin B12
19 years and older
male/female= 2.4 ug/day
deficiency symptoms from lack of Vitamin B12
pernicious anemia, pale skin, diminished energy and low exercise tolerance, fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations, tingling and numbness in extremities, abnormal gait, memory loss, poor concentration, disorientation, and dementia.
primary functions of pantothenic acid
component of coenzymes (CoA) that assists with fatty acid metabolism

recommended intake for Pantothenic Acid
19 years or older-
male/female= 5 mg/day
deficiency symptoms from lack of pantothenic acid
rare, almost none.
primary functions of biotin
component of coenzymes involved in carb, fat, and protein metabolism.
recommended intake for Biotin
19 yrs and older-
male/female= 30 ug/day
primary functions for choline
homocysteine metabolism, accelerates synthesis and metab of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, assists in synthesis of phospholipids and other components of cell membranes, assists in the transport and metab of fats and cholesterol.
recommended intake for choline
550 mg/day for male
425 mg/day for female
a disease caused by thiamin deficiency
where is thiamin found
ham and other pork products. and mixed dishes containing whole/enriched grains and meat/soy.
where is riboflavin found
eggs, meat, milk and milk products, broccoli, enriched bread and grains, and ready to eat cereals.
a condition caused by riboflavin deficiency
food sources of niacin
meat, fish, poultry, enriched bread products, and ready to eat cereals. more available in meat products.
a disease that results from severe niacin deficiency
food source of vitamin B6
meat, fish (tuna), poultry, organ meats, white potatoes and other starchy vegetables, bananas, and fortified soy-based meat substitutes.
food sources of pantothenic acid
chicken, beef, egg yolk, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, whole grains and organ meats.
food sources of biotin
ready-to-eat cereals.
a neurotransmitter that is involved in many functions, including muscle movement and memory storage.
food sources of choline
milk, liver, eggs and peanuts
primary functions of iodine
necessary component of the thyroid hormones, which helps regulate human metabolism.
enlargement of the thyroid gland, can be caused by iodine deficiency.
food sources of iodine
saltwater foods, iodized salts
a unique form of mental retardation that occurs in infants when the mother experiences iodine deficiency during pregnancy
a condition characterized by low blood levels of thyroid hormone.
a condition characterized by high blood levels of the thyroid hormone.
primary functions of chromium
enhances the ability of insulin to transport glucose from the bloodstream to the cells. also important role in metabolism of of RNA and DNA, in immune function and growth.
recommended intake for chromium
men= 25 ug/day women=25 ug/day

older than 50
30 ug/day and 20 ug/day

primary role of manganese
cofactor involved in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the formation of urea. Assists in the synthesis of the protein matrix found in bone tissue and building cartilage, a tissue supporting joints. component of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
recommended intake for manganese
2.3 mg/day for men and 1.8 mg/day for women.
food sources of manganese
whole grain foods (oat bran, wheat flour, whole wheat spaghetti, and brown rice), pineapple, pine nuts, okra, spinach, and raspberries.
primary role of sulfur
major mineral component of thiamin and biotin. essential for macronutrient metabolism, also part of amino acids methionine and cysteine, helps stabilize the 3D shapes of proteins in the body. Liver requires sulfur for detoxification of alcohol
a substance composed of molecules that move past one another freely. Fluids are characterized by their ability to conform to the shape of whatever container holds them
interstitial fluid
the fluid that flows between the cells that make up a particular tissue or organ, such as muscle fibers or the liver.
intravascular fluid
the fluid in the bloodstream and lymph
a substance that disassociates in the solution into positively and negatively charged ions and is thus capable of carrying an electrical current
any electrically charged particle, either positively or negatively charged
predominant electrolytes in intracellular fluid
potassium and phosphate

predominant electrolytes in extracellular fluids
sodium and chloride
a substance that is capable of mixing with and breaking apart a variety of compounds. water is an excellent solvent.
blood volume
the amount of fluid in the blood.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone released from the pituitary gland in response to an increase in blood solute concentration. ADH stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water and to reduce the production of urine.
an enzyme secreted by the kidneys in response to a decrease in blood pressure. Renin converts the blood protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which eventually results in an increase in sodium reabsorption.
angiotensin II
a potent vasoconstrictor that constricts the diameter of blood vessels and increases blood pressure; it also signals the release of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands.
a hormone released from the adrenal glands that signals the kidneys to retain sodium and chloride, which in turn results in the retention of water.
the movement of water (or any solvent) through a semipermeable membrane from an area where the solutes are less concentrated to areas where they are highly concentrated
osmotic pressure
the pressure that is needed to keep the particles in a solution from drawing liquid toward them across a semipermeable membrane.
thirst mechanism
a cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that stimulate our conscious desire to drink fluids in response to an increase in the concentration of salt in our blood or a decrease in blood pressure and blood volume.
sensible water loss
water loss that is notice by a person, such as through urine or sweating.
insensible water loss
the loss of water not noticeable by a person, such as through evaporation from the skin and exhalation from the lungs during breathing.
a substance that increases fluid loss via urine. Common diuretics include alcohol as well as prescription medications fro high blood pressure and other disorders.
primary functions of sodium
main + charged electrolyte in extracellular fluid, maintains proper acid-base balance, assists transmission of nerve signals, aids muscle contraction, assists in the absorption of glucose and other nutrients.
recommended intake of sodium
1.5 g/day
primary functions of potassium
main + charged electrolyte in intracellular fluid, regulates contraction of muscles, regulates transmission of nerve impulses, assists in maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.
recommended intake for potassium
4.7 g/day
primary functions of chloride
assists with maintaining fluid balance, aids in preparing food for digestion (as HCl), helps kill bacteria, assists in the transmission of nerve impulses.
recommended intake for chloride
2.3 g/day
primary functions of phosphorus
major negatively charged electrolyte in intracellular fluid, maintains proper fluid balance, plays critical role in bone formation, component of ATP, which provides energy for our bodies, helps regulate biochemical reactions, major part of genetic materials (DNA and RNA), a component in cell membrane LDL.
recommended intake for phosphorus
700 mg/day
a condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously high
a condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously low.
a condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously high
a condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously low.
phytic acid
the form of potassium stored in plants.
depletion of body fluid that results when fluid excretion exceeds fluid intake.
dilution of body fluid. It results when water intake or retention is excessive
a chronic condition characterized by above-average blood pressure readings; specifically, systolic blood pressure over 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure over 90mmHg
salt sensitivity
a condition in which certain people respond to a high salt intake by experiencing an increase in blood pressure; these people also experience a decrease in blood pressure when salt intake is low.
salt resistance
a condition in which certain people do not experience changes in blood pressure with changes in salt intake.
uncontrollable muscle spasms caused by increased nervous system excitability that can result from electrolyte imbalances or a chronic disease such as epilepsy.
muscle cramps
involuntary, spasmodic, and painful muscle contractions that last for many seconds or even minutes; electrolyte imbalances are often the cause of muscle cramps.

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