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Dixie Cartwright Geography Test 1


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the Study of Human and Natural Features and their distribution on the Earth's Surface.
What are the 2 Major branches of Geography? Name 3 Specialized fields in Each.
Human Geography (History, Economics, Sociology)
Physical Geography (Climatology, Soils geography, Mathematical geography)
Digital representation of the Earth's surface that can be used to describe landscape feature and can support analysis of these features
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
The collection of data and information without actually being exposed to the area.
Remote Sensing
the primary symbol of geography
the art and science of making maps
the actual distance on Earth as represented by a given linear unit on a map (1:10,000).
indicates a places location in relation to the equator and the poles
indicates position east or west of the prime meridian, lines extend from pole to pole.
0 degrees Longitude
Prime Meridian
0 Degrees Latitude
Imaginary line that divides the world into 2 consecutive Calendar Days
International Date Line
Distorts in at least 1 of 4 areas: Shape, Area, Distance, Direction
Map Projections
Map projections distort in at least 1 of 4 areas:
Shape, area, distance, Direction
Location defined in its relation to other places
Relative Location
Location defined according to its mathematical, unique location adress
Absolute Location
Largest Geographical units into which the inhabited world can be divided.
Europe is best Characterized as being a large:
The traditional physical dividing line between Europe and Asia is
The Ural Mountains
Despite Europe's northerly Latitudinal position, it has a very temperate climate due to:
the Gulf Stream, Atlantic Drift
4 Major physigraphic regions of Europe:
North European Lowland, Alpine Mountain System, Central Lowlands, Western Uplands
The first Millennium B.C. witnessed a great expansion of ______ and ______ peoples of Europe.
Germanic and Slavic
What are the major periods of European History and give 2 examples of what occurred or what was accomplished in each.
Dark Ages...
Middle Ages: Modern cities founded, feudalism
Renaissance: Reformation, Age of Exploration
Modern day Romance Languages evolved from
The love of one's country
Force that brings a state together (9-11)
Centripetal force
Force that pulls a state apart (racial conflict, civil war)
Centrifugal force
3 major reasons for Europe's rise in World prominence and power prior to WWII?
Capitalism, Science, Technology
What were the major reasons for Europe's decline in World power following WWII?
1) War
2) Rise in Nationalism (in colonies)
3) US and Russia's rise to world power status
4) Shift in manufacturing patterns
5) Energy Factors
What is the term given to the current population trend occurring in Europe?
Implosion (declining population; death rate exceeds birth rate)
The most populated regions of Europe:
Northwestern Europe (Germany, France, UK, Italy
European country with the highest Muslim Population
Albania (No birth Control)
Main Reason of Population growth in Europe: Is this a problem?
Immigration; yes- not enough jobs
3 Major divisions of European Languages and their regions:
Romance (French, Spanish, Italian)
Germanic (German, Swedish, English, Dutch)
Slavic (Polish, Croatian, Bulgarian, Slovenian,Ukrainian)
the process by which regions or peoples within a state demand and gain political strength and sometimes autonomy either through negotiation or active rebellion.
Examples of Devolution
Yugoslavia, The UK, Spain
Post-Industrial Society
Shift From farming to Services and Industry. Growing Middle class
A voluntary association of three or more states. Political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
European Union (EU)
Coordinates a policy of unifying economics, defense, and justice and home affairs.
27 Members
2 Countries that lead the EU
France and Germany
The Benelux Countries
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
United Kingdom
England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
The fragmentation of a political area into many smaller independent units
The leading financial center of Europe
The English Channel Tunnel Connect which 2 countries
U.K. and France
Europe's Largest Country by area
City that is twice the size of the countries second largest city
Primate city
A large Strategically located region caught between conflicting interest of great powers
Buffer State
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
What is extracted from the north sea
BOTH oil and natural gas
what defines the boundaries of a realm?
cultural aspects & natural features
3 types of geographical regions and examples
Formal (US),
Functional (Major city: NYC), Vernacular (south)
Region that displays a visible and measurable amount of unity
Formal Region
Region not marked by the sameness but by the interactions occurring within the region
Functional Region
region that exists in the mind of a large number of people and play an important role in cultural identity
Vernacular region
What does Continental Drift do?
affects the physical landscape
pattern that emerges over a 30 yr period in both precipitation and temperature of a given location
Atmospheric conditions prevailing at one time and place
What doesn't affect a locations climate?
Precipitation caused by the ascent of air over hills or mountains
Orographic Precipitation
Climate and Vegetation:
Climate and Vegetation:
Humid Equatorial
Climate and Vegetation:
Humid Temperate
Climate and Vegetation:
Andes Mts
Undifferentiated Highland
Climate and Vegetation:
Humid temperate
Climate and Vegetation:
Moscow, Russia
Humid Temperate
Climate and Vegetation:
Humid Temperate
Climate and Vegetation:
Cold Polar
Shared patters of learned behavior by a group of individuals
the forms placed on the physical landscape by activity of man
Cultural Landscape
place of origin of a major culture or cultural trait
Cultural Hearth
Spread of cultural traits from the cultural hearth
Cultural Diffusion
Current population
6.5 Billion
Country with highest population
Country with smallest population
Country with the highest population density
country with the lowest population density
an area organized into a political unit with a government in effective control
State (US)
a group of tightly knit people who share numerous cultural characteristics, and usually do not control their own territory
Nation (Kurds)
a political unit that meets the criteria of both a state and a nation. It is the ideal political model, but is very rare
Nation-State (Japan)
Total outputs of goods and services a country produces internally
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
4 factors that influence the relative wealth of a nation
>Good geographical location
>Abundance of Raw materials
>Skilled Labor force
>Political Stability
Per capital which country has the highest GDP
Nation that has become prosperous despite its lack of Natural resources
The spread of free trade, free markets, investments, and ideas across borders
Most populated area
East Asia (1.5 Billion)

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