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11, 12, 13


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population change
= (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
births + immigration = deaths + emigration
birth rate / crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
death rate / crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
replacement-level fertility
number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
total fertility rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years if between ages 15 and 49 she bears children at the same rate as women did this year
life expectancy
the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
infant mortality rate
the number of babies out of every 1,000 born who die before their first birthday
age structure
the proportion of the population at each age level
demographic transition
as countries become industrialized, first their death rates and then their birth rates decline
family planning
provides educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them
Industrialized agriculture / high-input agriculture
uses large amounts of fossil fuel, energy, water, commercial fertilizers, pesticides to produce huge quantities of single crops or livestock animals for sale
plantation agriculture
form of industrialized agriculture practiced primarily in tropical developing countries
traditional subsistence agriculture
uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival
traditional intensive agriculture
farmers increase their inputs of human and draft labor, fertilizer, and water to get a higher yield per area of cultivated land to produce enough food to feed their families and to sell for income
green revolution
process in which increased global food production comes from increased yields per unit area of cropland
polyvarietal cultivation
plot is planted with varieties of same crop
two or more different crops grow at the same time on a plot
agroforestry / alley cropping
crops and trees are planted together
complex form of intercropping in which different plants maturing at various times are planted together
farmers grow several crops on the same plot
people who can't grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs
deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients
food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat
genetic engineering / gene splicing
insertion of an alien gene into a commercially valuable plant to give it a new beneficial genetic trait
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
gene splicing
managed grasslands or enclosed meadows planted with domesticated grasses or other forage
absence of grazing for long periods can reduce the net primary productivity of grassland vegetation and grass cover
concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water
taking of so many fish that too little breeding stock is left to maintain numbers

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