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AP Biologogy Evolution Part I


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- believed in scala naturae" ladder of life"
- spontaneous generation
- believed that organisms could not move on the ladder
- disproved spontaneous generation
- maggot and meat experiment
Pasteur's experiment
- jar 1, unconvered + meat
- jar 2, covered + meat
- jar 3, cheesecloth + meat
- Theologian and botonist
- created a sytem for classification
- believedin catastrophism
- sudden catastrophes created the change
- believed in gradualism
- gradual change over time
- bleived that organism can move rungs in ladder
- belived organism could increase in complexity
Charles Darwin
- father of modern evolutionary thought
- natural selection and common ancestry
- independent co-founder of natural selection
studied embryology and founded modern phylogenetic practices
- branches rather than ladders in ancestry and classification
Stanely miller
put CH4, NH3, H20, H2 + pressure + lightining
= sugars, aminos acids, nucleotides
shares 50% of the same DNA as homosapiens
bonobos chimps
share 98.5 % the same DNA as homsapiens
Natural selection
change in phenotype due to natural selection and interaction with environments
- over very long period of time
- discreat characteristic in an environment
- many discrete characteristics within a population in high frequencies
artificial selection
selective breeding to keep a phenotype in a population
frequency dependent selection
when reproductive success of an organism delicnes because that morph is too common
directional selection
shifts in frequency curve to one extreme
stabilizing selection
- shift in frequency to average phenotype
diversifying selection
- shift in phenotypic frequency to both extremes
intrasexual selection
- direct competition among member of on esex for the opposite sex
intersexual selection
individuals of one gender " CHOOSES" mates of the other gender
Hamilton's law
b= benefit
c= cost
r = relatedness
if C/B < r, then an altruistic act will be performed
- when one organism does an act for the whole group at the price of his life
hpw many other people will be benefited and how closely they are related to you
- cost
always 1, because the cost of an alturistic act is 1 life
secondary sexual characteristics
anthying other than reproductive organs that charcterizes a male or female
sexual dimorphism
organism that has secondary sexual characteristics
Darwin fitness
how much an organism contributes to the gene pool
- mom with two kids has higher darwinian fitness than mom with 1 kid
relative fitness
- how many time one genotype occurs within a population in comparison other genotypes
- higher frequency= higher relative fitness
Natural selction and evolution work on _ not _
Phenotypes NOT genotypes
why can't natural selection produce perfect organisms?
1) historical contraints
- can't make anything from scratch
2) adaptations are usually compromises
species that include specialized non- reproductive casts as memeber of their populations
- they are usually much smaller in size and they are sterile
examples of eusociality
termites- caste sprays invaders from head
bees- male workers are small
naked mole rat- king and queen reproduce , some take care of kids, others act as soldiers
Kin selection
when a members of the specieis helps the offspring of their parents
genetic drift
- change in alle frequency due to chance event
bottleneck effect
dramatic decrease in population size due to chance event ( volcanoe, hurricane)
founder effect
when a section of a population sections off and reproduces only with itself
- ex ( if Austrailia flood and only the aborigines survived then austrailia would only have aborigenes
gene flow
when members of populations move and breed
allele loss
- when an allele is lost in a population
- like if all red haird people died then red haird allele would be lost
allele fixation
- when an allele is fixed in a population
- all humans have the allel for hearts
- insecticide that killed 99.9 % of all insects
- the 1 % became super bugs
- example of directional selection
- HIV does reverse transcriptase
- drug that mimics cytosine and stops reverse transcriptase
-mutations occurs at sites where 3TC has been implemented
similar charctertics arising from common ancestry
population or group that can produce viable and fertile offspring
- organism branches from original line
- the original species exists but so does the branched organism
- direct lineage
- original species does not exists
prezygotic barriers
- things that preven organisms from reproducing
1) habitat
2) behavior
3) temporal
post zygotic barries
- reduced hybrid viability
- not fertile
- geographic isolation
allopatric speciation
a physical barrier stands betwen two populations that eventually creates two new species
sympatric speciation
- populations live in the same area but a small portion of a population will breed only with itself
Hardy Weinberg equilibrium equation
p2+ 2pq + q2 = 1
p+ q = 1

p = dominant allele,
q = recessive allele,
p2 = frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype
2pq = frequency of heterozygous genotype
q2 = frequency of homozygous recessives

# / total population = frequency
Weinbergy equation is true when allele are distributed equally in a population

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