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General things to remember - block 1 m1


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Anchors synaptic vesicles to the cystoskeleton for storage - has to be phosphorylated to release them for synaptic transmission.
Guides released vesicles to dock at the active zone in a synapse.
A molecule on vesicle membranes that when bound to Ca2+ allows them to dock to the plasma membrane's active site.
Inhibitory CNS neurotransmitter; opens Cl- channels and prevents opening of voltage-gated channels.
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter at multiple synapses in both brain and SC
Ecl for mammalians
specific transporter for Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles
Glutamate autoreceptor for feedback inhibition of synthesis and release at Glutamatergic neurons
System activated by NE
reticular activating system
How many types of glutamate uptake receptors for inactivation
5 - all work by sodium cotransport
Things in the CELL
Things in the ECF
What gives ion channels selectivity?
P loops - 5 amino acids facing inner pore
Mechanical event that opens ion channels:
Movement of Pos Arg residues on S4 Gate to outside
-makes inside of memb pos
-makes outside of memb neg
How to close a Na channel:
Hinged Gate - loop blocks the hole
How to close a K channel:
Ball and Chain - amino terminus swings up to plug the hole with its positive charge.
Contributions to the Em:
95% = K diffusion
5% = Na/K Atpase
How Na/K Pump works:
3 Na out
2 K in
Net neg charge on inside
Reverse osmosis - the movement of water up its concentration gradient due to hydrostatic force.
-RH or LH failure
-Loss of plasma proteins
-Renal failure
-Brain damage
-Diabetes insipidus
noncompetetive inhibitor of Na/K ATPase - prevents K binding
Mechanism of Oubain:
1. Inhibit Na/K Pump
2. Sodium accumulates in cell
3. Sodium/Ca exchanger stops working b/c no gradient for Na
4. Ca accumulates in SR and increased contraction force
prevents neuromuscular junction release of NT by inhibiting SNAREs
Nerve gas
inhibits acetylcholinesterase - no stop of neuromusc transmsn.
Dihydropyridine receptor - the Voltage gated Ca channel on muscle cells within the T-tubule
Ryanidine receptors - Calcium gated calcium channels in the SR - activated by the calcium that came in via DHPR rec on cell surface
blocks AcH receptors so no EPP is generated at the NMJ
-treatment for
Anti-AChesterase - keeps it around longer
-treats myasthenia gravis
Malignant hyperthermia
SR channels fail to close - Ca leaks out; constant contraction; generates lots of heat and increased metabolism.
Cause of malignant hyperthermia:
Genetic - induced by Anesthesia
4 Ways to change contractile force in a skeletal muscle:
1. Length-tension relationship
2. Summation
3. Tetany
4. Fatigue
2 Types of summation:
1. Frequency (temporal)
2. # motor units (quantel)
What does the Length-tension curve tell?
Longer length = more passive F
Active F goes to zero if too long.
What does the Force-velocity curve tell?
The larger the load (force) the slower velocity
The lighter the load the faster velocity.
Can you change the Force/Velocity curve?
For skeletal: no
For cardiac: yes - via vagal versus sympathetic stim
Fast muscle fibers
-Extensive SR
Slow muscle fibers
-Extensive blood supply
What type of muscle is tonic?
What type of muscle is phasic?
What stimulates aorta?
What stimulates jejunum?
What inhibits aorta?
What inhibits jejunum?
What is an EMG
Electromyography - changes in electrical signal allow you to see recruitment of muscle fibers
What happens to a skeletal muscle when you increase voltage with fixed resistance?
Current changes because you recruit more motor units
What is motor unit recruitment?
Quantel summation
What's the other type of summation?
Frequency summation
What is frequency summation?
Decreasing the time between two impulses so that they add together to make one big impulse.
What is Delay Time?
Time between release of Ca from SR and the actual release of Troponin from Actin - about 8-10 ms
What was the cause of muscle fatigue if you see fast recovery?
-Glycogen depletion
-K+ buildup in ECF (depolarizing)
What causes small motor unit fatigue?
Loss of calcium
What fibers fatigue first?
Fast twitch - run out of glycogen first and can't do oxidative metabolism
3 Types of Calcium channels:
N type - neurons
L type - Atria/ventricles
T type - SA and AV nodes

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