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Chapter 8 (cont.)


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muscles whose action is under voluntary control; examples: the muscles that move the eyeballs, tongue, and bones
skeletal muscles (voluntary muscles, striated muscles)
striated muscle found in the heart
cardiac muscle
muscles whose actions are involuntary; found principally in the visceral organs, walls of arteries, walls of respiratory passages, and in the urinary and reproductive ducts
smooth muscles
muscle fibers arise directly from bone
fleshy attachments
connective tissue converges at the end of the muscle to become continuous and indistinguishable from the periosteum
fibrous attachments
when the fibrous attachment spans a large area of a particular bone, the attachment is called this
provide the framework of the body, protect internal organs, store calcium and other minerals, and produce blood cells within bone marrow
cube-shaped bones that consist of a core of spongy bone, aka cancellous bone, that it is enclosed in a thin surface layer of compact bone; examples: ankles and wrists
short bones
bones that cannot be classified as short or long because of their complex shapes; examples: vertebrae and the bones of the middle ear
irregular bones
these bones provide broad surfaces for muscular attachment or protection for internal organs; examples: skull, shoulder blades, and sternum
flat bones
found in the extremities of the body, such as legs and arms
long bones
the shaft or long, main portion of a bone
the two ends of the bones that provide space for muscle and ligament attachments near the joints
distal epiphysis and proximal epiphysis
found within the epiphyses and is surrounded by a layer of compact bone; red bone marrow is found here
spongy bone
a type of elastic connective tissue that provides a smooth surface for movement of joints
articular cartilage
dense, white, fibrous membrane, covers the remaining surface of the bone; contains numerous blood and lymph vessels and nerves
in growing bones, the inner layer of the periosteum contains bone-forming cells known as these
"soft spots" found on an infant's skull
supports the body and provides a canal for the spinal cord
vertebral column
forms the skeletal framework of the neck
cervical vertebrae
the first cervical vertebra that supports the skull
the second cervical vertebra that makes possible rotation of the sull on the neck
12 vertebrae that support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
thoracic vertebrae
5 vertebrae that carry most of the weight of the torso
lumbar vertebrae
gelatinous mass in the center of the intervertebral disks
nucleus pulposus
attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton and provides attachments for musclesthat aid upper limb movements
pectoral girdle
supports the trunk of the body and provides protection for the visceral organs of the pelvis
pelvic girdle
joints that allow movement
synovial joints
a sleevelike extension of the periosteum
joint capsule
the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, care, and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
a physician that maintains that good health requires proper alignment of bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves
osteopathic physician (DO)
broken bone
the bone is broken, but with no external wound
closed or simple fracture
involves a broken bone and an external wound that leads to the site of fracture
open or compund fracture
a broken bone has injured some internal organ, such as when a broken rib punctures a lung
complicated fracture
the bone has broken or splintered into pieces
comminuted fracture
occurs when the bone is broken and one end is wedged into the interior of another bone
impacted fracture
when the line of fracture does not include a whole bone
imcomplete fracture
when one side of a long bone is broken and the other side is bent
greenstick fracture
a break at the lower end of the radius, occurs just above the wrist
Colles fracture
a minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
hairline fracture
usually caused by a disease process such as a neoplasm or osteoporosis
pathological (spontaneous) fractures
infection of the bone and bone marrow
pus-forming bacteria
destruction of the bone
stiffening, or freezing of the joints
chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones
Paget disease; aka osteitis deformans
common metabolic bone disorder in the elderly
an abnormal curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right
an abnormal curvature of a portion of the spine
kyphosis, aka humpback or hunchback
an abnormal, inward curvature of a portion of the spine
lordosis; aka swayback
a systemic disease characterized by inflammatory changes in joints and their related structures, results in crippling deformities
rheumatoid arthritis
metabolic disease caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystal in blood
gouty arthritis; aka gout
genetic disease characterized by gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue
muscular dystrophy
a neuromuscular disorder, causes fluctuating weakness of certain skeletal muscle groups (of the eyes, face, and, to a lesser degree, the limbs)
myasthenia gravis (MG)
develops from primitive nerve cells in bone marrow; usually affects the shaft of long bones but may occur in the pelvis or other bones of the arms or legs
ewing sarcoma

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