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Ap Government Chapter 8 and 9


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how does one become a member of a party
declare you are a member
how political parties are structured
awarding political jobs based soley on political leaning and not by merit or competence
state parties
hold primaries or caucuses to send delegates with votes to the national convention for presidential candidates

they choose the type of primary
national committee
on of the institutions that keeps the party operation between conventions and deals w/ policy issues
national chairperson
person who hires staff to take care of the day-to-day activities in order to keep the party running
party electorate
those who have registered under a given party
party organization
office with staff, rules, bylaw and make $ for the next election
party in government
officials who have been elected into office
political party
a group of ppl that are trying to win elections
purpose of "nominations"
narrow down the list of candidates
Primary goals of political parties
raise $
inform ppl
select who runs for office
advocate policy
political parties as linkage institutions
translates input of the people to the output of policymakers
voting 2 ways in an election
Trends in independence
in the past 50 years there has been and increase in independent voters

democrats have lost the most
proportion of parties
closed primaries
must be registered with a specific party to vote

(most used)
open primaries
choose which ballot you want the day of the election
blanket primary
everyone stuck on the same ballot
Critical elections
realignment of political association, new issues emerge, new coalitions, majority party is toppled.
party realignment
changing parties
party dealignment
where ppl decide not to associate with any party
party platforms
unify voice of a party
all parties have them
accomplish 75% of what they say
Republican era
defined by anti-slavery which united the Republican party and split the democratic party
also a 2nd era was when Democrat William Jennings Brian supported getting off the gold standard and everyone got scared and voted Republican
New Deal era
Coming out of the great depression with Roosevelt's New Deal proposal. Everyone was upset with Republicans lack of reform.
Era of Divided Government
1968 to the Present
There hasn't been a serious pattern of control
Make up of the New Deal Coalition
everyone but rich ppl big business owners
party loyalty in recent years
has declined
importance/effects of third parties
new issues, new groups, specific to a certain idea, take away votes from big parties

never win
Factors that suggest political parties influence in US is diminishing
no patronage
candidates run campaigns w/o support of party
people have influence since party reform
party doesn't have control of officials
responsible to interest groups
national convention
set platform (determined before)
make nominations
look like everyone agrees
how caucuses work
precinct county and state levels
each level you vote for a candidate and delegates move to the next level
1968 Democratic convention
everyone got upset about the Vietnam war and there were riots
Changes after 1968 in democratic nomination
it has become more democratic and there has been an increase in women minorities and young people at the conventions
McGovern-Fraiser Commison
made the nomination more democratic

called for an increase in allowing minorities to come to the nomination
done by democratic party
15% of all the delgates at the national convention are hand-picked by the party and have them for the candidate they want to have the nomination
How dates of primaries and caucuses are set
informal agreement
set by state law/parties
importance of new hampshire and iowa in the presidential race
they go first and recieve 40% of all media attention
national primary
everyone votes the same day
pro national primary
less money
less travel
less candidates away from the job
direct and simple
con national primary
media goes to the big states
hurts the little men
hard to build momentum
regional primary
break the country into 5 different regions and vote in a certain block of weeks
pro regional primary
gives more edge to the little guy
compacts process
less travel
less time
breaks up who goes first to change media coverage
con regional primary
the little guy is still hurt
still emphasis on bigger states in the region
agreeing on regional boundaries
same reasons as national just not to such a large degree
why conventions are no longer significant
there isn't any suspense
and everyone usually knows who it is before the convention
passed because of Watergate scandal
-created FEC
-created public financing of presidential elections
-public disclosure reports
-limits on contributions
-imposed spending limits
Buckley v. Valeo ruling
-challenged FECA under the First Amendment
-upheld limits on contributions
-struck down expenditure limits
-struck down limits on personal spending
-upheld reporting requirements
McCain-Feingold Act
made soft $ illegal
prohibited state parties from spending soft money
banned ppl under 18 to make contibutions
no outside ads up until 60 days before election
soft money
no limits
political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level for generic party advertising.
direct mail
finding potential supporters by sending information and a request for money to huge lists of ppl who have supported people with similar views in the past
made by groups of people with the only intent of donating money
importance of PAC $
it is important in congressional races because congress is the policy makers

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