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Arctic and Atlantic Ocean Currents


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Angola current

- An extension of the Guinea Current
- Flows near western Africa's coast
- Is known to have created similar effects in the upwelling as El Niño, though weaker
Antilles Current

- Warm water current
- Flows northwesterly past the island chain that separates the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
- Results from the flow of the Atlantic North Equatorial Current
Benguela current

- Cold current
- North-flowing from the Southern Ocean that surrounds Antarctica along the west coast of Africa as far as Angola
- Forms the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre
- Sources include Indian and South Atlantic subtropical thermocline water; saline, low-oxygen tropical Atlantic water; and cooler, fresher subantarctic water
- Where the icy Benguela and the warm, south-flowing Agulhas current mix, there is a richly productive marine ecosystem off the Cape of Good Hope but storms and turbulence above
- Creates the desert conditions of the shore of Namibia, and the persistent fogs of the Skeleton Coast
Brazil Current

- Warm water current
- Flows southward along the Brazilian south coast to the mouth of the Río de la Plata
- Caused by diversion of a portion of the Atlantic South Equatorial Current from where that current meets the South American continent
- A western boundary current like the Gulf Stream, and is indeed its southern counterpart; but considerably shallower and weaker
Canary Current

- Cool current
- Branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows toward the South West about as far as Senegal where it turns West
- Cool temperature caused by the upwelling nutrient-rich water drawn in from below the surface by the current
- Named after the Canary Islands
Cape Horn Current

- Cold water current
- Flows west-to-east around Cape Horn
- Caused by the intensification of the West Wind Drift as it rounds the cape
Caribbean Current

- Warm water current
- Flows into the Caribbean Sea from the east along the coast of South America
- Results from the flow of the Atlantic South Equatorial Current as it flows north along the coast of Brazil

(As the current turns north through the Yucatan Channel, it is renamed the Yucatan Current)
East Greenland Current

- Cold Current
- originates in the Arctic Ocean and brings cold, low salinity, southbound water along the East Coast of Greenland
- one of the five main currents that make up the subpolar gyre, which provides a major outflow of cold Arctic waters into the Atlantic Ocean
Falkland Current

- Cold current
- Flows northward along the Atlantic coast of Patagonia as far north as the mouth of the Río de la Plata
- Results from the movement of water from the West Wind Drift as it rounds Cape Horn
Gulf Stream

- powerful, warm, and swift
- originates in the Gulf of Mexico, exits through the Strait of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean
- At 30°W, 40°N, splits in two, with the northern stream crossing to northern Europe and the southern stream recirculating off West Africa
- Influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, and the west coast of Europe
Guinea Current

- Slow warm water current
- Flows easterly along the Guinea coast of West Africa
Labrador Current

- Cold current
- flows from the Arctic Ocean south along the coast of Labrador and passes around Newfoundland, continuing south along the east coast of Nova Scotia.
- A continuation of the West Greenland Current and the Baffin Island Current
- Meets the warm Gulf Stream at the Grand Banks southeast of Newfoundland and again north of the Outer Banks of North Carolina
- Combination of these two currents produces heavy fogs and created one of the richest fishing grounds in the world
- In spring and early summer, transports icebergs from the glaciers of Greenland southwards into the trans-Atlantic shipping lanes
North Atlantic Current
(North Atlantic Drift)
(North Atlantic Sea Movement)

- Warm current
- Continues the Gulf Stream northwest
- West of Ireland splits in two
- One branch goes south (the Canary Current)
- Other branch continues north along the coast of northwestern Europe where it has a considerable warming influence on the climate
- Other branches include the Irminger Current and the Norway Current
North Brazil Currents

- Term of the complexion of Atlantic Southern equatorial current and the Atlantic equatorial counter current, Guinea current
- stream in opposite directions, and fluctuate in their strength, thus making it very difficult to sail fast in the respective area
North Equatorial Current

- Flows east-to-west between the equator and 10° north
- Caused by the rotation of the Earth towards the east, the resulting westerly current brought about by the relative motion of the water with respect to the earth
Norwegian Current

- Flows north-easterly along the Atlantic coast of Norway
- Contrasts with the Gulf Stream because it is colder and has less salt
- Considerably warmer and saltier than the Arctic Sea
Portugal Current

- Weak warm water current
- Flows south-easterly towards the coast of Portugal
- Results from the movement of water east caused by the North Atlantic Drift
South Atlantic Current

- Name used of the Atlantic northern parts of the West Wind Drift
- Eastward current is fed by the Brazil Current
- Fraction of it which reaches the African coast feeds the Benguela Current
- Sea-faring is usually easier and safer than in the West Wind Drift, though also slower
South Equatorial Current

- Significant Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean current
- Flows east-to-west between the equator and 10 degrees south
- Caused by the rotation of the Earth towards the east
Spitzbergen current

- Northernmost part of the North Atlantic Current
- Separates from the Norwegian Current in the area of Norwegian abyssal plain
- Keeps the North Atlantic passage to Spitzbergen free of ice for most of the year
West Greenland Current

- Weak cold water current
- Flows to the north along the west coast of Greenland
- Results from the movement of water flowing around the southernmost point of Greenland caused by the East Greenland Current
Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)
(West Wind Drift)

- Flows from west to east around Antarctica
- The strongest current system in the world oceans
- Links the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins
- Linked to the strong westerly winds which are found in the Southern Ocean
- Current consists of a number of fronts
- Includes Antarctic Circumpolar Wave, a periodic oscillation that affects the climate of much of the southern hemisphere

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