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AP Bio Midterm - Chapter 16


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Viruses that infect bacteria that are widely used as research tools in molecular genetics
A = 30.9%, T = 29.4%, G = 19.9%, C = 19.8%, consistent ration among species
Chargaff's Rules
Both parents of DNA are intact
Dispersive - have a mixture of both old and new DNA
When a double helix replicates, each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand, and one new strand
Semiconservative model
Replication of a DNA molecule begins at these special sites
Origins of Replication
End of bubble; Y-shaped region where the new strands of DNA are elongating
Replication Fork
Catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork (enzyme); can only add on pre-existing nucleotides, gets rid of primers when complete
DNA Polymerases
DNA strand that's nestled in the replication fork by a polymerase - 5' - 3' parent strand, going 3' - 5'
Leading Strand
DNA synthesized away from replication fork discontinuous, 3' - 5' parent strand, going 5' - 3'
Lagging Strand
Joins the sugar phosphate backbones to the Okazaki fragments to create a single DNA strand - connects fragments with bonds
DNA Ligase
Start of the new chain - short sketch of RNA
Enzyme that joins RNA molecules to make the primer
Enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication fork, separating the two strands
Line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while they serve as templates for the synthesis of the new complementary strands
Single-strand binding protein
Cells use enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
Mismatch repair
Segment gets cut out by this enzyme; resulting gap filled with nucleotides properly paired - type of repair called nucleotide excision repair - found in skin cells
Special nucleotide sequences, repetitions of one short nucleotide sequence - protects the organism's genes from being deleted; erode afterwards
Enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres; serves as buffers; present in some cells - present in cancer cells

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