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AP Bio Midterm - Chapter 15


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The phenotype most common in natural populations
Wild Type
Genes locatd on a sex chromosome
Sex-linked genes
Genes located on the same chromosome; tend to be inherited together in a genetic crosses because the chromosome is passed along as a unit
Linked genes
The production of offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from two parents
Genetic recombination
An ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
Genetic map
Weakening of muscles and loss of coordination - protein found in X chromosome
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into this compact object - lies along the inside of the nuclear envelope - most are not expressed
Barr body
Members of a pair of homologus chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II
Offspring will have an abnromal chromosomal number
2n + 1 of chromosomes
2n - 1 of chromosomes
Triploidy (3n) and tetraploidy (4n)
Chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere lost during cell division
Fragment attatched as an extra segment to a sister chromatid
Inversion - reverses a segment within a chromosome
Fragment to join a nonhomologous chromosome and rearrange with it; reciprocal translocation - can cause leukemia
Extra chromosome 21
Down Syndrome
Extra X in a male, XXY, have both characteristics of both sexes
Klinefelter syndrome
Monosomy X
Turner syndrome
Specific deletion of chromosome 5
Cri du chat
A gene on one chromosome is somehow silenced by methylation (-CH3), while its allele on the homologus chromosome is left free to be expressed
Genomic imprinting
Abnormal X chromosome
Fragile X syndrome
Part of 22 switches with tip of chromosome 9
Chronic Myelogenus Leukemia (CML)

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