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eps 102 C.1 geochem


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who first used the term geochemistry?
swiss chemist Schonbein in 1838
science consists of two parts. what are they?
1) the knowledge it encompasses
2) the approach that achieves that knowledge
science consists of two quantities. what are they?
observations and theories
atomic number
used to sort periodic table and is the number of protons in the nucleus
mass of an atom
proton number + neutron number, however an atom can have multiple neutron variations (isotopes)
atomic weight
depends on the masses of the various isotopes and their relative abundance
what did Thompson do in 1918?
demonstrated the existence of two Ne isotopes
what are the four quantum numbers and what are they labeled?
principal, n
azimuthal, l
magnetic, m
spin, m_s
What does the principal, n, determine? What are typical values?

determines electron's energy as well as mean distance from the nucleus
What does the azimuthal, l, determine? What are typical values?

determines the total angular momentum and the shape of the orbit
What does the magnetic, m, determine? Typical values?

determines the z component of angular momentum and therefore the orientation of the orbit
What does the spin, m_s, determine? Typical values?
-1/2, 1/2

determines the electron's spin
The first three quantum numbers say what about the electrons surrounding the nucleus
they are organized into shell, subshells, and orbitals
What does the Pauli Exlusion Principle say?
requires that no two electrons in an atom may have identical values of all four quantum numbers
What is the first shell/period called? How many subshells? Quantum numbers?
K shell, one subshell (1s),
n=1, l=0, m=0.

2 elements: H and He
What is the second shell called? How many subshells?
shell: L
2 subshells: 2s(l=0), 2p(l=1)
How many orbitals does the p subshell have?
How many electrons can the L shell accept?
8 (8 elements in period 2)
What is the third shell called?
Why is the 3d subshell vacant in period 3?
the possibility is therem but is energetically less favorable than electrons going in the subsequent shell.
When do 3d subshells begin to fill?
After the 4s orbital is filled
Which orbitals correspond to the transition series metals, Sc through Zn?
5 3d orbitals
Which orbitals correspond to the 2nd and third transition series metals?
4d and 5d orbitals
The filling of the 4f shell correspond to which rare earth elements?
The filling of the 5f shells correspond to which rare earth elements?
How many electrons can each subshell level hold respectively: s,p,d,f
What are the elements of group 1 called?
alkalis--all have 1 electron in outermost s orbital
What are the group 18 elements called?
noble gasses--all have filled p subshell
First Ionization Potential
Energy required to remove the least tightly bound electron.
Second Ionization Potential
Energy required to move a 2nd electron, etc.
electron affinity
energy given up in reactions:

ex. F + e- = F-
differences in bond energy between an A-B molecule and the mean energies of A-A and B-B molecules. It quantifies the tendencty of an element to attract to a shared electron when bonded to another element
In general, 1st ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativities, ____from right to left, and to a less degree from top to bottom.
# of electrons that an element will either give up or accept
valency of Uranium
Ionic radius
deduced from bond length when the atom is bonded to one or more other atoms.
postively charged atoms.

SMALL ionic radii
negatively charged atoms.

LARGE ionic radius
_______ decreases as charge increases, due both to losee of electrons and shrinking of orbits of remaining electrons
ionic radius
ready to accept an electron, tend to form ionic bonds, rather than covalent bonds
what are group 2 elements called?
alkaline earths
group 17 elements?
halogens--highly electropositive
elements of groups 13-16 tend to form what kind of bonds?
covalent--tend to be less reactive and soluble
what are the noble metals?
Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt--these elements tend to be very unreactive..dont oxidize like most other metals
How do the rare earths metals vary?
only by the number of electrons in the 4f shell

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